- Research article
- Open Access
Xenopus importin beta validates human importin beta as a cell cycle negative regulator
© Delmar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 20 November 2007
- Accepted: 22 March 2008
- Published: 22 March 2008
Human importin beta has been used in all Xenopus laevis in vitro nuclear assembly and spindle assembly studies. This disconnect between species raised the question for us as to whether importin beta was an authentic negative regulator of cell cycle events, or a dominant negative regulator due to a difference between the human and Xenopus importin beta sequences. No Xenopus importin beta gene was yet identified at the time of those studies. Thus, we first cloned, identified, and tested the Xenopus importin beta gene to address this important mechanistic difference. If human importin beta is an authentic negative regulator then we would expect human and Xenopus importin beta to have identical negative regulatory effects on nuclear membrane fusion and pore assembly. If human importin beta acts instead as a dominant negative mutant inhibitor, we should then see no inhibitory effect when we added the Xenopus homologue.
We found that Xenopus importin beta acts identically to its human counterpart. It negatively regulates both nuclear membrane fusion and pore assembly. Human importin beta inhibition was previously found to be reversible by Ran for mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear membrane fusion, but not nuclear pore assembly. During the present study, we observed that this differing reversibility varied depending on the presence or absence of a tag on importin beta. Indeed, when untagged importin beta, either human or Xenopus, was used, inhibition of nuclear pore assembly proved to be Ran-reversible.
We conclude that importin beta, human or Xenopus, is an authentic negative regulator of nuclear assembly and, presumably, spindle assembly. A difference in the Ran sensitivity between tagged and untagged importin beta in pore assembly gives us mechanistic insight into nuclear pore formation.
- Nuclear Pore Complex
- Spindle Assembly
- Mitotic Spindle Assembly
- Importin Beta
Vertebrate nuclear assembly is a complex process involving the sequential recruitment of specific proteins and membranes to chromatin. At the end of mitosis, membrane vesicles and/or ER membrane sheets arrive at the chromatin surface to fuse and form a unique structure consisting of two complete, encircling membrane bilayers [1, 2]. As soon as regions of double membrane form at the chromatin surface, nuclear pore complexes form within those regions perforating the membranes. Nuclear pore complexes span the bilayers and control virtually all traffic between the nucleus and cytoplasm [3, 4]. The 125-megadalton vertebrate nuclear pore is composed of multiple copies of ~30 different nucleoporins, only three of which are integral membrane proteins . The majority of nucleoporins are recruited from soluble cytoplasmic subunits. The assembly of these nucleoporins into the 500–1000 protein complex is a daunting task, as nucleoporins must sequentially and precisely assemble in the correct order and location [6–8]. Determining the choreographed molecular mechanism by which nucleoporins assemble into functional pores within the double nuclear membranes is a matter of intense research.
The nuclear import factor, importin beta, and its regulatory counterpart, the small GTPase Ran, were revealed to be two key regulatory factors controlling this choreography, both for nuclear membrane fusion and separately for nuclear pore assembly [9–13]. Addition of excess human importin beta to a Xenopus nuclear reconstitution system disrupts the endogenous ratio between importin beta and RanGTP. This disruption blocks proper nuclear membrane fusion and the subsequent step of nuclear pore assembly [9, 10]. The block to nuclear membrane fusion was found to be reversible by the positive regulator, RanGTP, but the block to pore assembly, oddly, was not [9, 10]. There is, however, much precedence for positive Ran effects on nuclear pore assembly: The addition of RanQ69L, a Ran mutant constitutively in the GTP-bound state, to the Xenopus reconstitution system causes greatly increased nuclear pore assembly and ectopic formation of additional pores in cytoplasmic membranes or annulate lamellae [9, 10, 14–17]. These studies led to the hypothesis that importin beta acts in the cell cycle to negatively regulate nuclear pore formation and that it does so by binding to nucleoporins, preventing them from interacting with one another. When such importin beta/nucleoporin complexes enter the vicinity of high RanGTP, importin beta preferentially binds RanGTP, releasing its hold on the nucleoporins. A high concentration of RanGTP is produced only around chromatin, due to the chromosomal localization of the RanGEF, RCC1 [18–21]. The freed nucleoporins are then able to interact with one another in the correct location and the correct ratio to form nuclear pores at the chromatin periphery [9, 10, 22].
Prior to the discovery of its role as a negative regulator of nuclear membrane fusion and pore assembly, importin beta was elegantly shown by a number of groups to be a negative regulator of mitotic spindle assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extract [23–29], mammalian cell lines [25, 30], Drosophila Melanogaster , and Caenorhabditis elegans  (Reviewed in [11, 12, 33, 34]). In this arena, mitotic spindle assembly factors (SAFs) such as TPX2, NuMa, and XCTK2 are found to be imported into the nucleus by importin beta and localize there throughout interphase in Xenopus egg extract [27, 28, 35–37] and mammalian cell lines [35, 38] (Reviewed in [39–41]). This sequestration effectively prevents the SAFs from interfering with interphase microtubule formation in the cytoplasm. At mitosis when the nuclear envelope breaks down, the SAFs are released from the nucleus and come under importin beta regulation. Binding of importin beta inhibits the SAFs throughout the cell, except in the vicinity of the RanGTP-rich chromosomes. There, importin beta preferentially binds to RanGTP, releasing its hold on the spindle assembly factors and allowing them to initiate mitotic spindle formation around the chromosomes.
These nuclear and spindle assembly studies on the regulatory role of importin beta were performed in interphase and mitotic assembly systems derived from Xenopus eggs [23, 26–28, 35, 42–50]. In a Xenopus interphase egg extract, nuclei normally assemble spontaneously around added chromatin or DNA [51–60]. In contrast, in a Xenopus mitotic egg extract, spindles spontaneously form around the added chromatin [61, 62]. Thus, these in vitro systems are powerful tools for studying both nuclear and mitotic spindle assembly.
Upon further analysis, we realized that the recombinant importin beta used in all the Xenopus studies of nuclear and spindle assembly was, in actuality, human importin beta [9, 10, 25, 27–30, 37, 63–68]. (Xenopus importin beta had neither been identified nor cloned and thus was not available for the studies). The use of recombinant human importin beta in the Xenopus system led to a further key question: Is importin beta an authentic negative regulator of cellular function, or does human importin beta act as a dominant negative mutant as a result of sequence variation between the human and Xenopus proteins?
To address this question, in this study we identified, cloned, and tested recombinant Xenopus importin beta for its role in nuclear membrane fusion and nuclear pore assembly. We found Xenopus importin beta to act identically to human importin beta, i.e., it acts as a negative regulator of both nuclear membrane fusion and pore assembly, finally validating the conclusion that importin beta is an authentic negative regulator of cell cycle steps. However, in examining tagged importin betas, which include the form that has been used in all the previous studies, we found evidence that the tag renders importin beta mutant in its response to Ran, but does so specifically with respect to pore assembly. This impairment of importin beta raises interesting hypotheses as to why nuclear pore assembly is unique, which will be discussed here.
Identification and cloning of Xenopus laevis importin beta
To further eliminate any potential differences from endogenous Xenopus importin beta, we wished to use recombinant Xenopus importin beta free of purification tags. For this, the Xenopus importin beta clone was subcloned into a vector that introduced a cleavable GST tag. After the GST- importin beta was expressed and purified, the GST tag was removed by Precision Protease and the resulting untagged Xenopus protein was used in nuclear assembly studies.
Xenopus importin beta negatively regulates membrane fusion in a Ran-sensitive manner
Xenopus importin beta negatively regulates nuclear pore assembly and is reversed by Ran
Strikingly, when BAPTA nuclei were diluted into cytosol containing Xenopus importin beta and RanQ69L, the BAPTA defect was rescued by Ran, i.e., FG-containing nuclear pores formed (Figure 3, bottom panel, +X-β +Ran). This rescue differed from what was previously seen where Ran was unable to overcome the human importin beta block to pore assembly (see Figure 3, + h-β-Tag +Ran and ). This new result prompted us to investigate the cause for the unexpected difference in Ran sensitivity.
Tagging importin beta causes insensitivity to Ran in its block to nuclear pore assembly
As a final test, however, an untagged form of human importin beta was cloned and used in a rescue experiment. We found that untagged human importin beta blocked the ability of nuclear pores to form when BAPTA-arrested nuclei were diluted into fresh cytosol (Figure 4B, +h-β). However, now RanQ69L rescued the pore assembly defect, albeit not as strongly as with the untagged Xenopus importin beta homologue (Figure 4B, compare +h-β +Ran with +X-β + Ran). Therefore, the first model of human importin beta acting as a dominant negative due to sequence variation is also plausible. Taken together, the data indicate that, specifically with respect to importin beta's block to pore assembly, wild-type human importin beta is less sensitive to Ran than Xenopus importin beta, and the presence of a His-tag on human importin beta renders it insensitive to Ran.
In this study we validate importin beta as a negative regulator of cell cycle events, including nuclear membrane fusion and pore assembly. As all importin beta studies on nuclear and mitotic spindle formation using the Xenopus in vitro system to date have involved the addition of human importin beta, we asked whether the effects of importin beta were due to an inter-species sequence variation causing the human protein to act as a dominant negative mutant form. Instead we clearly show in experiments with Xenopus importin beta that this wild type protein acts as a true negative regulator.
Interestingly, during the course of this study we uncovered a mechanistic explanation for the Ran-insensitive importin beta block to pore assembly previously observed . Tagging importin beta at the N- (Xenopus) or C- (human) terminus was discovered to block importin beta's sensitivity to RanGTP (up to 100 μM of added Ran, data not shown) in Xenopus in vitro studies, but only in the realm of nuclear pore assembly. Both spindle assembly and nuclear membrane assembly are blocked by importin beta, but readily reversed by RanGTP . We showed that, upon removal of the tag, RanGTP now also reversed the block to pore assembly engendered by Xenopus importin beta and partially reverses the block by human importin beta.
Importin beta normally undergoes a significant conformational change upon RanGTP binding [71–80]. It is therefore not inconceivable that even a small tag, such as the six histidine tag, could increase rigidity or cause an inability for importin beta to fully change conformation and thus be unable to release its binding partners correctly in response to RanGTP. What is surprising is that the tagged-importin beta insensitivity to RanGTP is only seen with respect to its role as a negative regulator of nuclear pore assembly. All other studies on the dynamics of importin beta and RanGTP in mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear membrane fusion have not shown an unresponsiveness of tagged-importin beta to RanGTP [9, 10]. One explanation for this might derive from the known association of importin beta with multiple FG-nucleoporins, suggesting that multiple sequential steps in pore assembly could potentially be regulated by importin beta [74, 81–84]. The cumulative effect of an impaired importin beta being incompletely released by Ran at each step of pore assembly could explain the observed irreversibility of tagged importin beta's block specifically on nuclear pore assembly.
A second explanation for why importin beta's regulation of nuclear pore complex assembly differs from nuclear membrane fusion and spindle assembly with respect to Ran reversibility may involve how the targets of regulation interact with importin beta. What mechanistically might differ between spindle assembly factor (SAF) binding and nucleoporin (Nup) binding to importin beta? One study suggested a region of importin beta (aa 71–876) bound to SAFs and blocked spindle assembly when added to a mitotic extract, whereas amino acids 1–380 of importin beta had a lesser effect on spindle assembly , albeit other interpretations are also possible . Notably, importin beta has two known binding sites for nucleoporins, aa 1–396 near the N-terminus and aa 304–876 near the C-terminus . Importantly, the N-terminal Nup binding site of importin beta partially overlaps with the binding site for RanGTP [12, 72, 73, 82, 83, 85, 86]. An intriguing possibility is that this N-terminal Nup binding site could be responsible for tagged importin beta's insensitivity to RanGTP with respect to pore assembly, as this site appears not to play a significant role in the regulation of mitotic spindle assembly.
There are as yet no identified molecular targets of importin beta with respect to nuclear membrane fusion that can be similarly analyzed. However, when an importin beta fragment (aa 45–462) containing the N-terminal Nup binding site, but lacking the importin alpha, RanGTP, and C-terminal Nup binding sites, is added, nuclear membrane fusion goes forward . Thus, the binding site on importin beta for the unknown membrane fusion factor or factors is not contained within this region (aa 45–462).
Perhaps the most surprising difference between tagged and untagged importin beta sensitivity to Ran is the differing effect on annulate lamellae (AL) pore formation versus nuclear pore formation. Importin beta blocks AL formation, but this block is reversed by RanGTP, whether tagged or untagged importin beta is used ( and data not shown), which is clearly not the case for nuclear pore assembly. One explanation could be that AL formation may not be as stringent as nuclear pore assembly, as the pore complexes in AL do not necessarily need to function, whereas nuclear pore complexes must be functional. An alternative explanation could be that the tagged importin beta blocks an assembly step that is unique to nuclear pore assembly and not found in AL assembly. Whatever the tag-sensitive block to nuclear pore assembly is, it must occur after nuclear vesicle-vesicle fusion, as the importin beta block to pore assembly is observed using membrane-enclosed BAPTA intermediates as a starting point (Figures 3 and 4) .
The placement of the 6-Histidine tag at either the N- or C-terminus of importin beta appears not to matter. The human importin beta used in most Xenopus in vitro studies [9, 10, 26, 29, 30, 35, 63, 65, 87] has a His tag at its C-terminus, while the tagged Xenopus importin beta constructed in this study has the tag at the N-terminus. We have not tested other types of tags on importin beta for their effect on pore assembly. Clearly, in the future functional studies using importin beta should take care to use an untagged version of importin beta or, alternatively, may specifically want to use a tagged version in order to study the mechanism of arrested nuclear pore assembly more closely.
By using species-specific importin beta for nuclear assembly studies we have now demonstrated that importin beta, human or Xenopus, is indeed an authentic negative regulator of nuclear assembly and, presumably, spindle assembly. In previous studies, the action of human importin beta could easily have been due to a dominant negative mutant effect, which would have required a different model of regulation. By performing the experiments here we now provide the evidence that importin beta must truly be a negative regulator in its wild type form.
Cloning and Sequencing of Xenopus importin beta
To obtain a sequence of Xenopus importin beta, overlapping Xenopus EST sequences showing homology to human importin beta were compiled from fragments present in the NIH Xenopus EST database. Full-length Xenopus importin beta was then cloned from Xenopus total RNA by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using the forward primer 5'-CCCGGATCC ATGGAGCTCGTCACCATCCTC-3' (with BamHI site underlined) and reverse primer 5'-CCCCGCGGCCGC TCAGGCTTGGTTTTTCAG-3' (with NotI site underlined). The full-length Xenopus importin beta cDNA was cloned into the N-terminal His tag vector pET28a (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) (pET28a-Xbfl). GST-Xenopus importin beta (pGEX6P-Xbfl) was cloned by restriction digestion of pET28a-Xbfl with BamHI and NotI, and ligation of the insert into the pGEX6P-3 vector (Amersham Biosciences, Sweden) digested with the same restriction enzymes.
The sequence of Xenopus importin beta was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the pET28-Xbfl construct with two forward primers: T7 promoter and an internal primer (Xbfl intF1, 5' GCTGCACTGCAAAACCTGG 3') and a reverse primer, the T7 terminator primer. Human and Xenopus importin beta were aligned using the Clustal-W program and highlighted using BoxShade, both available through the Workbench program of the San Diego Super Computer Center .
Protein Expression and Purification
To purify untagged human and Xenopus importin beta, pGEX6P-hbfl and pGEX6P-Xbfl were transformed into Rosetta DE3 competent cells (EMD Biosciences, Germany), expanded, and induced with 0.1 mM isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) overnight at 17°C. Glutathione-Sepharose 4B beads (Amersham Biosciences, Sweden) were used to purify the GST-tagged protein as per manufacturer's instructions. To remove the GST tag, purified proteins were cleaved on the column in the presence of 80 units of Precision Protease (Amersham Biosciences, Sweden) for 4 hours at 4°C. Untagged protein was eluted from the column and dialyzed into 5% glycerol/PBS and stored at -80°C.
Nuclear reconstitution and immunofluorescence
Nuclear reconstitution and 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) (Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA) nuclear reconstitution reactions were performed in the Xenopus egg extract system as described previously . FG nucleoporins were localized using an Alexa-488 directly labelled monoclonal antibody mAb414 (Covance, Berkeley, CA). Xenopus egg cytosol and membranes were prepared as previously described , except for the use of 500 mM KCl in the membrane wash buffer. After fixation in 3% formaldehyde, membranes were visualized by the lipophilic dye 3,3-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DHCC) (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). DNA was stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phylindole (DAPI). Nuclei were visualized with an Axioskop 2 microscope (63X objective; Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, NY).
We would like to thank Corine Lau and other members of the Forbes lab for helpful discussions, and Brian Sato for assistance with the cloning of Xenopus importin beta. The work described here was supported by a National Institutes of Health grant R01-GM033279 to D.J.F.
- Ellenberg J, Siggia ED, Moreira JE, Smith CL, Presley JF, Worman HJ, Lippincott-Schwartz J: Nuclear membrane dynamics and reassembly in living cells: targeting of an inner nuclear membrane protein in interphase and mitosis. The Journal of cell biology. 1997, 138: 1193-1206. 10.1083/jcb.138.6.1193.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang L, Guan T, Gerace L: Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope are dispersed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis. The Journal of cell biology. 1997, 137: 1199-1210. 10.1083/jcb.137.6.1199.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pante N, Aebi U: Exploring nuclear pore complex structure and function in molecular detail. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1995, 19: 1-11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maco B, Fahrenkrog B, Huang NP, Aebi U: Nuclear pore complex structure and plasticity revealed by electron and atomic force microscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2006, 322: 273-288.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cronshaw JM, Krutchinsky AN, Zhang W, Chait BT, Matunis MJ: Proteomic analysis of the mammalian nuclear pore complex. The Journal of cell biology. 2002, 158: 915-927. 10.1083/jcb.200206106.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bodoor K, Shaikh S, Enarson P, Chowdhury S, Salina D, Raharjo WH, Burke B: Function and assembly of nuclear pore complex proteins. Biochem Cell Biol. 1999, 77: 321-329. 10.1139/bcb-77-4-321.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bodoor K, Shaikh S, Salina D, Raharjo WH, Bastos R, Lohka M, Burke B: Sequential recruitment of NPC proteins to the nuclear periphery at the end of mitosis. Journal of cell science. 1999, 112 (Pt 13): 2253-2264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kiseleva E, Goldberg MW, Cronshaw J, Allen TD: The nuclear pore complex: structure, function, and dynamics. Critical reviews in eukaryotic gene expression. 2000, 10: 101-112.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harel A, Chan RC, Lachish-Zalait A, Zimmerman E, Elbaum M, Forbes DJ: Importin beta negatively regulates nuclear membrane fusion and nuclear pore complex assembly. Molecular biology of the cell. 2003, 14: 4387-4396. 10.1091/mbc.E03-05-0275.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walther TC, Askjaer P, Gentzel M, Habermann A, Griffiths G, Wilm M, Mattaj IW, Hetzer M: RanGTP mediates nuclear pore complex assembly. Nature. 2003, 424: 689-694. 10.1038/nature01898.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clarke PR, Zhang C: Spatial and temporal control of nuclear envelope assembly by Ran GTPase. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. 2004, 193-204.Google Scholar
- Harel A, Forbes DJ: Importin beta: conducting a much larger cellular symphony. Molecular cell. 2004, 16: 319-330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mosammaparast N, Pemberton LF: Karyopherins: from nuclear-transport mediators to nuclear-function regulators. Trends in cell biology. 2004, 14: 547-556. 10.1016/j.tcb.2004.09.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dabauvalle MC, Loos K, Merkert H, Scheer U: Spontaneous assembly of pore complex-containing membranes ("annulate lamellae") in Xenopus egg extract in the absence of chromatin. The Journal of cell biology. 1991, 112: 1073-1082. 10.1083/jcb.112.6.1073.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meier E, Miller BR, Forbes DJ: Nuclear pore complex assembly studied with a biochemical assay for annulate lamellae formation. The Journal of cell biology. 1995, 129: 1459-1472. 10.1083/jcb.129.6.1459.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hughes M, Zhang C, Avis JM, Hutchison CJ, Clarke PR: The role of the ran GTPase in nuclear assembly and DNA replication: characterisation of the effects of Ran mutants. Journal of cell science. 1998, 111 (Pt 20): 3017-3026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miller BR, Forbes DJ: Purification of the vertebrate nuclear pore complex by biochemical criteria. Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). 2000, 1: 941-951. 10.1034/j.1600-0854.2000.011204.x.Google Scholar
- Moore W, Zhang C, Clarke PR: Targeting of RCC1 to chromosomes is required for proper mitotic spindle assembly in human cells. Curr Biol. 2002, 12: 1442-1447. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01076-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clarke PR, Zhang C: Ran GTPase: a master regulator of nuclear structure and function during the eukaryotic cell division cycle?. Trends in cell biology. 2001, 11: 366-371. 10.1016/S0962-8924(01)02071-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dasso M: Running on Ran: nuclear transport and the mitotic spindle. Cell. 2001, 104: 321-324. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00218-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuersten S, Ohno M, Mattaj IW: Nucleocytoplasmic transport: Ran, beta and beyond. Trends in cell biology. 2001, 11: 497-503. 10.1016/S0962-8924(01)02144-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hetzer MW, Walther TC, Mattaj IW: Pushing the envelope: structure, function, and dynamics of the nuclear periphery. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2005, 21: 347-380. 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.21.090704.151152.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blower MD, Nachury M, Heald R, Weis K: A Rae1-containing ribonucleoprotein complex is required for mitotic spindle assembly. Cell. 2005, 121: 223-234. 10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caudron M, Bunt G, Bastiaens P, Karsenti E: Spatial coordination of spindle assembly by chromosome-mediated signaling gradients. Science. 2005, 309: 1373-1376. 10.1126/science.1115964.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalab P, Pralle A, Isacoff EY, Heald R, Weis K: Analysis of a RanGTP-regulated gradient in mitotic somatic cells. Nature. 2006, 440: 697-701. 10.1038/nature04589.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalab P, Weis K, Heald R: Visualization of a Ran-GTP gradient in interphase and mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. Science. 2002, 295: 2452-2456. 10.1126/science.1068798.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nachury MV, Maresca TJ, Salmon WC, Waterman-Storer CM, Heald R, Weis K: Importin beta is a mitotic target of the small GTPase Ran in spindle assembly. Cell. 2001, 104: 95-106. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00194-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wiese C, Wilde A, Moore MS, Adam SA, Merdes A, Zheng Y: Role of importin-beta in coupling Ran to downstream targets in microtubule assembly. Science. 2001, 291: 653-656. 10.1126/science.1057661.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang C, Hutchins JR, Muhlhausser P, Kutay U, Clarke PR: Role of importin-beta in the control of nuclear envelope assembly by Ran. Curr Biol. 2002, 12: 498-502. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00714-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ciciarello M, Mangiacasale R, Thibier C, Guarguaglini G, Marchetti E, Di Fiore B, Lavia P: Importin beta is transported to spindle poles during mitosis and regulates Ran-dependent spindle assembly factors in mammalian cells. Journal of cell science. 2004, 117: 6511-6522. 10.1242/jcs.01569.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trieselmann N, Wilde A: Ran localizes around the microtubule spindle in vivo during mitosis in Drosophila embryos. Curr Biol. 2002, 12: 1124-1129. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00934-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Askjaer P, Galy V, Hannak E, Mattaj IW: Ran GTPase cycle and importins alpha and beta are essential for spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Molecular biology of the cell. 2002, 13: 4355-4370. 10.1091/mbc.E02-06-0346.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Funabiki H: Two birds with one stone – dealing with nuclear transport and spindle assembly. Cell. 2005, 121: 157-158. 10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quimby BB, Dasso M: The small GTPase Ran: interpreting the signs. Current opinion in cell biology. 2003, 15: 338-344. 10.1016/S0955-0674(03)00046-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gruss OJ, Carazo-Salas RE, Schatz CA, Guarguaglini G, Kast J, Wilm M, Le Bot N, Vernos I, Karsenti E, Mattaj IW: Ran induces spindle assembly by reversing the inhibitory effect of importin alpha on TPX2 activity. Cell. 2001, 104: 83-93. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00193-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schatz CA, Santarella R, Hoenger A, Karsenti E, Mattaj IW, Gruss OJ, Carazo-Salas RE: Importin alpha-regulated nucleation of microtubules by TPX2. The EMBO journal. 2003, 22: 2060-2070. 10.1093/emboj/cdg195.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ems-McClung SC, Zheng Y, Walczak CE: Importin alpha/beta and Ran-GTP regulate XCTK2 microtubule binding through a bipartite nuclear localization signal. Molecular biology of the cell. 2004, 15: 46-57. 10.1091/mbc.E03-07-0454.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Du Q, Taylor L, Compton DA, Macara IG: LGN blocks the ability of NuMA to bind and stabilize microtubules. A mechanism for mitotic spindle assembly regulation. Curr Biol. 2002, 12: 1928-1933. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01298-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dasso M: The Ran GTPase: theme and variations. Curr Biol. 2002, 12: R502-508. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00970-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kahana JA, Cleveland DW: Beyond nuclear transport. Ran-GTP as a determinant of spindle assembly. The Journal of cell biology. 1999, 146: 1205-1210. 10.1083/jcb.146.6.1205.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moore JD: The Ran-GTPase and cell-cycle control. Bioessays. 2001, 23: 77-85. 10.1002/1521-1878(200101)23:1<77::AID-BIES1010>3.0.CO;2-E.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carazo-Salas RE, Guarguaglini G, Gruss OJ, Segref A, Karsenti E, Mattaj IW: Generation of GTP-bound Ran by RCC1 is required for chromatin-induced mitotic spindle formation. Nature. 1999, 400: 178-181. 10.1038/22133.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalab P, Pu RT, Dasso M: The ran GTPase regulates mitotic spindle assembly. Curr Biol. 1999, 9: 481-484. 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80213-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ohba T, Nakamura M, Nishitani H, Nishimoto T: Self-organization of microtubule asters induced in Xenopus egg extracts by GTP-bound Ran. Science. 1999, 284: 1356-1358. 10.1126/science.284.5418.1356.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilde A, Zheng Y: Stimulation of microtubule aster formation and spindle assembly by the small GTPase Ran. Science. 1999, 284: 1359-1362. 10.1126/science.284.5418.1359.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang C, Hughes M, Clarke PR: Ran-GTP stabilises microtubule asters and inhibits nuclear assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. Journal of cell science. 1999, 112 (Pt 14): 2453-2461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carazo-Salas RE, Gruss OJ, Mattaj IW, Karsenti E: Ran-GTP coordinates regulation of microtubule nucleation and dynamics during mitotic-spindle assembly. Nature cell biology. 2001, 3: 228-234. 10.1038/35060009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilde A, Lizarraga SB, Zhang L, Wiese C, Gliksman NR, Walczak CE, Zheng Y: Ran stimulates spindle assembly by altering microtubule dynamics and the balance of motor activities. Nature cell biology. 2001, 3: 221-227. 10.1038/35060000.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hannak E, Heald R: Investigating mitotic spindle assembly and function in vitro using Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Nature protocols. 2006, 1: 2305-2314. 10.1038/nprot.2006.396.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Orjalo AV, Arnaoutov A, Shen Z, Boyarchuk Y, Zeitlin SG, Fontoura B, Briggs S, Dasso M, Forbes DJ: The Nup107-160 nucleoporin complex is required for correct bipolar spindle assembly. Molecular biology of the cell. 2006, 17: 3806-3818. 10.1091/mbc.E05-11-1061.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forbes DJ, Kirschner MW, Newport JW: Spontaneous formation of nucleus-like structures around bacteriophage DNA microinjected into Xenopus eggs. Cell. 1983, 34: 13-23. 10.1016/0092-8674(83)90132-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lohka MJ, Masui Y: Roles of cytosol and cytoplasmic particles in nuclear envelope assembly and sperm pronuclear formation in cell-free preparations from amphibian eggs. The Journal of cell biology. 1984, 98: 1222-1230. 10.1083/jcb.98.4.1222.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blow JJ, Laskey RA: Initiation of DNA replication in nuclei and purified DNA by a cell-free extract of Xenopus eggs. Cell. 1986, 47: 577-587. 10.1016/0092-8674(86)90622-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Newport J: Nuclear reconstitution in vitro: stages of assembly around protein-free DNA. Cell. 1987, 48: 205-217. 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90424-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bauer DW, Murphy C, Wu Z, Wu CH, Gall JG: In vitro assembly of coiled bodies in Xenopus egg extract. Molecular biology of the cell. 1994, 5: 633-644.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Powers MA, Macaulay C, Masiarz FR, Forbes DJ: Reconstituted nuclei depleted of a vertebrate GLFG nuclear pore protein, p97, import but are defective in nuclear growth and replication. The Journal of cell biology. 1995, 128: 721-736. 10.1083/jcb.128.5.721.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ullman KS, Forbes DJ: RNA polymerase III transcription in synthetic nuclei assembled in vitro from defined DNA templates. Mol Cellular Biol. 1995, 15: 4873-4883. [http://mcb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/15/9/4873?view=long&pmid=7651406]View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Macaulay C, Forbes DJ: Assembly of the nuclear pore: biochemically distinct steps revealed with NEM, GTP gamma S, and BAPTA. The Journal of cell biology. 1996, 132: 5-20. 10.1083/jcb.132.1.5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldberg MW, Wiese C, Allen TD, Wilson KL: Dimples, pores, star-rings, and thin rings on growing nuclear envelopes: evidence for structural intermediates in nuclear pore complex assembly. Journal of cell science. 1997, 110 (Pt 4): 409-420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hetzer M, Meyer HH, Walther TC, Bilbao-Cortes D, Warren G, Mattaj IW: Distinct AAA-ATPase p97 complexes function in discrete steps of nuclear assembly. Nature cell biology. 2001, 3: 1086-1091. 10.1038/ncb1201-1086.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Desai A, Murray A, Mitchison TJ, Walczak CE: The use of Xenopus egg extracts to study mitotic spindle assembly and function in vitro. Methods in cell biology. 1999, 61: 385-412.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maresca TJ, Heald R: Methods for studying spindle assembly and chromosome condensation in Xenopus egg extracts. Methods Mol Biol. 2006, 322: 459-474.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kutay U, Izaurralde E, Bischoff FR, Mattaj IW, Gorlich D: Dominant-negative mutants of importin-beta block multiple pathways of import and export through the nuclear pore complex. The EMBO journal. 1997, 16: 1153-1163. 10.1093/emboj/16.6.1153.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albee AJ, Tao W, Wiese C: Phosphorylation of maskin by Aurora-A is regulated by RanGTP and importin beta. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2006, 281: 38293-38301. 10.1074/jbc.M607203200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- D'Angelo MA, Anderson DJ, Richard E, Hetzer MW: Nuclear pores form de novo from both sides of the nuclear envelope. Science. 2006, 312: 440-443. 10.1126/science.1124196.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsai MY, Wang S, Heidinger JM, Shumaker DK, Adam SA, Goldman RD, Zheng Y: A mitotic lamin B matrix induced by RanGTP required for spindle assembly. Science. 2006, 311: 1887-1893. 10.1126/science.1122771.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Di Fiore B, Ciciarello M, Lavia P: Mitotic functions of the Ran GTPase network: the importance of being in the right place at the right time. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex). 2004, 3: 305-313.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ciciarello M, Mangiacasale R, Lavia P: Spatial control of mitosis by the GTPase Ran. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007, 64: 1891-1914. 10.1007/s00018-007-6568-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunphy WG, Newport JW: Mitosis-inducing factors are present in a latent form during interphase in the Xenopus embryo. The Journal of cell biology. 1988, 106: 2047-2056. 10.1083/jcb.106.6.2047.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shumaker DK, Vann LR, Goldberg MW, Allen TD, Wilson KL: TPEN, a Zn2+/Fe2+ chelator with low affinity for Ca2+, inhibits lamin assembly, destabilizes nuclear architecture and may independently protect nuclei from apoptosis in vitro. Cell calcium. 1998, 23: 151-164. 10.1016/S0143-4160(98)90114-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chi NC, Adam EJ, Adam SA: Different binding domains for Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP/RanBP1 on nuclear import factor p97. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1997, 272: 6818-6822. 10.1074/jbc.272.10.6818.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cingolani G, Petosa C, Weis K, Muller CW: Structure of importin-beta bound to the IBB domain of importin-alpha. Nature. 1999, 399: 221-229. 10.1038/20367.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vetter IR, Arndt A, Kutay U, Gorlich D, Wittinghofer A: Structural view of the Ran-Importin beta interaction at 2.3 A resolution. Cell. 1999, 97: 635-646. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80774-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bayliss R, Littlewood T, Stewart M: Structural basis for the interaction between FxFG nucleoporin repeats and importin-beta in nuclear trafficking. Cell. 2000, 102: 99-108. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00014-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cingolani G, Bednenko J, Gillespie MT, Gerace L: Molecular basis for the recognition of a nonclassical nuclear localization signal by importin beta. Molecular cell. 2002, 10: 1345-1353. 10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00727-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee SJ, Sekimoto T, Yamashita E, Nagoshi E, Nakagawa A, Imamoto N, Yoshimura M, Sakai H, Chong KT, Tsukihara T, Yoneda Y: The structure of importin-beta bound to SREBP-2: nuclear import of a transcription factor. Science. 2003, 302: 1571-1575. 10.1126/science.1088372.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saric M, Zhao X, Korner C, Nowak C, Kuhlmann J, Vetter IR: Structural and biochemical characterization of the Importin-beta.Ran.GTP.RanBD1 complex. FEBS letters. 2007, 581: 1369-1376. 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.02.067.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conti E: The hitchhiker's guide to the nucleus. Nature structural biology. 2003, 10: 8-9. 10.1038/nsb0103-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bednenko J, Cingolani G, Gerace L: Nucleocytoplasmic transport: navigating the channel. Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). 2003, 4: 127-135.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Conti E, Muller CW, Stewart M: Karyopherin flexibility in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Current opinion in structural biology. 2006, 16: 237-244. 10.1016/j.sbi.2006.03.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shah S, Tugendreich S, Forbes D: Major binding sites for the nuclear import receptor are the internal nucleoporin Nup153 and the adjacent nuclear filament protein Tpr. The Journal of cell biology. 1998, 141: 31-49. 10.1083/jcb.141.1.31.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bayliss R, Littlewood T, Strawn LA, Wente SR, Stewart M: GLFG and FxFG nucleoporins bind to overlapping sites on importin-beta. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002, 277: 50597-50606. 10.1074/jbc.M209037200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bednenko J, Cingolani G, Gerace L: Importin beta contains a COOH-terminal nucleoporin binding region important for nuclear transport. The Journal of cell biology. 2003, 162: 391-401. 10.1083/jcb.200303085.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Isgro TA, Schulten K: Binding dynamics of isolated nucleoporin repeat regions to importin-beta. Structure. 2005, 13: 1869-1879. 10.1016/j.str.2005.09.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee SJ, Matsuura Y, Liu SM, Stewart M: Structural basis for nuclear import complex dissociation by RanGTP. Nature. 2005, 435: 693-696. 10.1038/nature03578.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Macara IG: Transport into and out of the nucleus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001, 65: 570-594. 10.1128/MMBR.65.4.570-594.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sillje HH, Nagel S, Korner R, Nigg EA: HURP is a Ran-importin beta-regulated protein that stabilizes kinetochore microtubules in the vicinity of chromosomes. Curr Biol. 2006, 16: 731-742. 10.1016/j.cub.2006.02.070.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- SDSC Biology Workbench. [http://workbench.sdsc.edu]
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.