- Research article
- Open Access
Mesenchymal stem cells rescue cardiomyoblasts from cell death in an in vitro ischemia model via direct cell-to-cell connections
© Cselenyák et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 2 September 2009
- Accepted: 20 April 2010
- Published: 20 April 2010
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell based therapies in myocardial infarction. However, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Our aim was to explore the possible role of direct cell-to-cell interaction between ischemic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and normal MSCs. Using an in vitro ischemia model of 150 minutes of oxygen glucose deprivation we investigated cell viability and cell interactions with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry.
Our model revealed that adding normal MSCs to the ischemic cell population significantly decreased the ratio of dead H9c2 cells (H9c2 only: 0.85 ± 0.086 vs. H9c2+MSCs: 0.16 ± 0.035). This effect was dependent on direct cell-to-cell contact since co-cultivation with MSCs cultured in cell inserts did not exert the same beneficial effect (ratio of dead H9c2 cells: 0.90 ± 0.055). Confocal microscopy revealed that cardiomyoblasts and MSCs frequently formed 200-500 nm wide intercellular connections and cell fusion rarely occurred between these cells.
Based on these results we hypothesize that mesenchymal stem cells may reduce the number of dead cardiomyoblasts after ischemic damage via direct cell-to-cell interactions and intercellular tubular connections may play an important role in these processes.
- Mesenchymal Stem Cell
- Cell Fusion
- H9c2 Cell
- Oxygen Glucose Deprivation
- Paracrine Factor
Cardiovascular diseases represent an enormous medical and social burden [1, 2] and the pathophysiology of most of these diseases, such as myocardial infarction or heart failure, involves death of cardiac myocytes leading to a loss of functional tissue. Cell based therapies are commonly believed to be the next generation of therapies for replacing such lost tissue [3–5]. Several in vivo animal and human studies have found that implantation of various cell types, typically bone marrow derived stem cells, into damaged myocardium improved cardiac performance. Also where the experimental protocol allowed, surviving grafted cells were detected in the myocardium [6, 7], suggesting that grafting is an effective treatment of acute myocardial infarction . However, the extent of the beneficial effect, the optimal cell type and number, the best method of administration, and the mechanism of action need to be further evaluated .
One important issue is the exact mechanism of action, in other words, the interaction between graft and host. Paracrine factors, transdifferentiation and cell fusion are the three generally accepted hypotheses explaining the beneficial effects of stem cell grafting. Paracrine factors through various effects, such as increased angiogenesis or modulation of postinfarct remodeling, may represent an important aspect of the benefits [10, 11]. On the other hand, several studies have found that co-culture of cardiomyocytes with pluripotent stem cells resulted in transdifferentiation of these cells into cardiomyocytes, which raised the hope that in vitro cultured tissue blocks can later be used for cardiac repair [12, 13]. However, although it is possible to construct a tissue in vitro this does not mean that its building blocks will perform similarly when implanted in vivo . Indeed, recent investigations found difficult to reproduce transdifferentiation and that bone marrow derived cells generate cardiomyocytes not by transdifferentiation but rather through cell fusion [15, 16]. Alvarez-Dolado et al demonstrated that bone marrow derived cells fused with cardiomyocytes , but the importance of cell fusion events was questioned by an other investigation . Even in studies which found morphologically adequate new cardiomyocytes, the volume of this newly formed tissue seemed to be inadequate to account for the functional benefits. Other hypotheses have also emerged to resolve the apparent controversy among the clinical findings and the cell culture studies, such as the most recently proposed partial cell fusion through direct cell-to-cell interactions. This novel intercellular communication route depends on short cell-to-cell interactions, during which the two connected cells exchange membrane and organelle parts such as mitochondria or other cytoplasmatic components . Recently, it was reported that cardiomyocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells appear to communicate through small diameter nanotubes, and mitochondria can migrate from MSCs to cardiomyocytes . However, the physiological purpose of this constantly changing nanotubular network and its possible role during ischemic conditions is unclear. We hypothesized that stem cells and post-ischemic cardiomyoblasts interact with each other via this novel mechanism and that this mechanism may play a role in the beneficial effect of stem cell transplantation.
The aim of our study was to examine the possibility of rescuing ischemically damaged H9c2 cardiomyoblasts from cell death by adding mesenchymal stem cells to the cultures after ischemia. Furthermore we investigated the importance of direct cell-to-cell interactions during co-cultivation of these cells.
Isolation and culture of cardiomyoblasts and MSCs
H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts were obtained from ATCC (Wesel, Germany) and expanded in high glucose (4.5 g/L) DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 4 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were harvested from the femur of C57Bl/6 mice. Isolation and primary culture was performed according to Tropel's method with small alterations . Briefly, animals were anaesthetized with pentobarbital (ip, 50 mg/kg, Nembutal, Ovation, Deerfield, IL, USA), lower limbs were removed and femurs were cleaned of tissue. Bone marrow was collected by flushing femurs with low glucose DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. Cells were centrifuged at 1200 rpm and plated in a T75 flask. After 4-5 days, non-adherent cells were removed by washing twice with PBS and adherent cells were then cultured in low glucose DMEM complete medium. Characterization of the cultured MSCs showed that these cells were strongly positive for the specific surface antigen Sca-1 and negative for differentiation markers of other cell lineages (CD34, CD3ε, CD45R/B220, CD11b, 6G, and TER-119) and were able to differentiate into the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages in vitro, verifying the MSC phenotype . Cell culture media was replaced every 2-3 days thereafter. All investigations conformed to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, Revised 1985), and were approved by the local ethics committee.
In vitro ischemia model
Ischemia-reperfusion was simulated in vitro by performing oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) on H9c2 cell cultures. Cells were incubated in glucose-free DMEM in an atmosphere of 0.5% O2 and 99.5% N2 for 150 minutes. This procedure was performed on the stage of the confocal microscope (PECON incubation system, Erbach-Bach, Germany) allowing the observation of the cells during OGD. To evaluate cell viability we used calcein-AM (excitation/emission 494/517 nm) to identify live cells, and ethidium-homodimer (excitation/emission 528/617 nm) to stain dead or damaged cells .
Co-cultivation of cardiomyoblasts and MSCs after OGD
H9c2 cells and MSCs were labeled before co-cultivation with Vybrant DiO (excitation/emission: 488/501 nm) and DiD (excitation/emission: 633/665 nm) (Molecular Probes, USA) membrane dyes in a dilution of 1:200 according to the manufacturer's description for 30 minutes at 37°C. The DiO-labeled H9c2 cells were plated in 12 well-plates at a density of 30,000 cells/well in 2 ml culture medium. Cells were subjected to 150 min OGD, then the medium was changed and 20,000 DiD-labeled MSCs/well were added to the damaged H9c2 cells 30 minutes after the end of OGD either directly or in cell culture inserts (0.4 μm pore size, Becton Dickinson, NJ, USA). H9c2 cells not receiving MSCs after OGD were used as controls. Cells were cultivated for a further 24 hours, then labeled with the dead cell stain ethidium homodimer (4 μM, 30 minutes, and 37°C), then investigated either with confocal microscopy (Zeiss LSM 510 META, Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) or with flow cytometry (BD FACSCalibur™, Becton Dickinson, NJ, USA).
Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry
Time lapse video microscopy was performed during and after in vitro ischemia to investigate morphological changes and possible interactions among the cells over time (1 picture/3 minutes). The H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and MSCs were co-cultured on 42 mm coverslips and stained with Vybrant DiO and DiD, respectively. In experiments to observe mitochondria, all cells were stained after OGD with MitoTracker Red (Molecular Probes, USA) in a dilution of 1:2000 for 10 minutes at 37°C according to the manufacturer's description. Flow cytometric measurements were performed on single cell suspensions of trypsinized (0.05% trypsin-EDTA) cell cultures 24 hours after OGD and on normal cell cultures (control) using BD FACSCalibur™. DiO-labeled H9c2 cells were identified and gated. Fluorescence data were collected using logarithmic amplification until 10,000 counts were reached.
Evaluation of fluorescence images and statistical analysis
The evaluation of confocal images for live and dead cells selected by morphology and fluorescence was performed with ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, USA). In case of co-cultures, MSCs were distinguished from H9c2 cells due to their Vybrant DiD cell labeling. The ratio of dead cells was evaluated in 4 independent fields of view (objective 10×) for each culture in a blind fashion. The evaluation of flow cytometry files was carried out using BD CellQuest™ Pro (Becton Dickinson, NJ, USA). Statistical analysis of data was carried out using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM.
In vitro ischemia model
Experiments showed that 4-6 hours was not adequate for the added MSCs to attach to the surface of the 12-well plates and exert their effect, 48 hours produced a culture overgrown by cardiomyoblasts and MSCs (data not shown). Therefore, the time point for microscopic evaluation and flow cytometry analysis subsequent to addition to MSCs was determined to be 24 hours.
Co-cultivation of cardiomyoblasts and MSCs after OGD
Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry
We also considered the possibility that MSCs may incorporate cell debris and thus acquire double labeling of fluorescent dyes. During the observations performed with time-lapse video microscopy we frequently saw that healthy cells contacted and moved around cell debris and apoptotic bodies in the culture dish, however, phagocytosis was not observed. The cells which contacted differentially stained cell debris did not pick up any fluorescent signal from the other, indicating that the double labeling of cells arose from a specific and controlled mechanism rather than cross-contamination. This is further strengthened by the observation that not all cell-to-cell connection resulted in dye transfer. (additional file 4: video4.mov).
We report that healthy mesenchymal stem cells are capable of rescuing post-ischemic cardiomyoblasts from cell death through a mechanism not yet implicated in the effects of stem cells after ischemic conditions. Thus, the beneficial effect of stem cell grafting may be based not only on improved neovascularisation and replacement of lost cells but on rescuing the damaged cells of the host as well.
The most likely explanation of the beneficial effects of MSC co-culture is that these cells improve the chances of the damaged H9c2 cells to restore their function and prevent later cell death. Ethidium homodimer has been shown to stain not only dead but damaged cells as well . Thus, although most H9c2 cells were stained by ethidium homodimer after OGD (Figure 1B), many cells were probably only reversibly damaged. An alternative explanation of our results could be an increased replication of surviving H9c2 cells. However, the nearly ten-fold difference in the number of viable H9c2 cells between our experimental groups 24 hr after OGD (Figure 3C) and the normal doubling time of these cells make this possibility unlikely to explain the difference.
The used in vitro ischemia model demonstrates that the beneficial effects of MSC co-culture seem to be dependent on direct cell-to-cell connections and intercellular nanotubes.
Nanotube formation has already been shown to occur among endothelial progenitor cells, cardiomyocytes [20, 24], immune cells and other lineages [25, 26]. The characterization of nanotubes revealed that these filaments contain actin and in some cases, microsomes or mitochondria . We found that this phenomenon occurs frequently between cardiomyoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cells failed to rescue post-ischemic cardiomyoblasts when intercellular connections were blocked by a physical barrier. These observations indicate that intercellular connections work toward the survival of cells both during and after ischemia, however, the underlying mechanisms may be slightly different.
One plausible mechanism for the rescuing effect is that transplanted cells improve regeneration through secreting paracrine factors [14, 28–31]. However, results from our experiments with the plate insert show that paracrine factors secreted by the cells are probably too low in our system to have any beneficial effect on these severely damaged cells. This in vitro experimental setup allows the investigation of cell-to-cell contacts, however, it cannot rule out that paracrine effects play a significant role in a more physiological in vivo setting. The time frame of the experimental protocol is also important. In our experiments we added the cells at an early time point and terminated the experiment before significant differentiation can occur. During a later time point the effect of paracrine factors is probably much more important especially in the differentiation process as shown by several other authors [6, 11].
Cell fusion is another phenomenon which is frequently observed in co-culture studies and in some cases, in in vivo experiments as well [15, 32, 33]. Several studies have shown that cell fusion can result in transdifferentiation, thus offering an alternative mechanism by which grafted cells improve the infarcted myocardium. Using videomicroscopy we also found several double labeled, double nuclei cells indicative of cell fusion. However, cell fusion showed high variations among different culture and detection techniques, and therefore extensive cell fusion as an in vitro artefact cannot be ruled out [14, 34, 35]. During our investigations we only observed a few unquestionable cell fusions which cannot account for the rescue of the high number of damaged cardiomyoblasts .
We also found double labeled cells without double nuclei in the co-culture of cardiomyoblasts and stem cells after 24 hours. The double labeling of these cells may be the result of direct cell-to cell connections. During these periods of connection, cells are able to exchange membrane parts and Vybrant dye molecules can drift from one cell to another. Movement of dye molecules from one cell to another through gap junction connections is precluded because the lipophilic Vybrant dyes are high molecular weight stains and cannot permeate through gap junctions . Driesen et al.  showed that low molecular weight tracers such as calcein-AM get from one cell to another through gap junctions, and high molecular weight tracers by partial cell fusion, thus the conclusion may be drawn that dye transfers after 24 hours in our experiment are most probably the results of direct cell-to-cell connections. Still, gap junctions may create an opportunity for grafted cells to interact with the host tissues [37, 38]. In the present experimental model most of cell-to-cell interactions were short-lived tubular connections, which formed a constantly changing web between the two investigated cell types.
Our experimental model was devised to investigate acute effects with high temporal and spatial resolution, therefore ruling out differentiation, which occurs over time. Moreover, an in vitro transplantation model in a cell culture system cannot mimic the 3-dimensional tissue where cell-to-cell connections are different. These circumstances obviously limit the conclusions drawn from our results. On the other hand, this experimental setting was necessary and favorable to investigate short-term cellular interactions.
The present study highlights that stem cell grafting may be beneficial through an acute, direct mechanism which saves damaged cardiomyoblasts. Novel grafting protocols can harness this effect, which raises the possibility that stem cells given early and locally can preserve heart tissue rather than simply help to replace what is already lost.
This work was supported by OTKA (Hungarian Scientific Research Fund) D45933, T049621, TÉT (Hungarian Science and Technology Foundation) A4/04 and Arg-17/2006, Bolyai, Öveges Fellowships and TÁMOP 4.2.2-08/1/KMR-2008-0004. We would like to thank Dr. Ferenc Uher for providing the mouse mesenchymal stem cells. We are grateful to Nancy Busija for copyediting the manuscript and we thank David Busija and Márk Kollai for critically revising the manuscript.
- Dayer M, Cowie MR: Heart failure: diagnosis and healthcare burden. Clin Med. 2004, 4 (1): 13-18.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kesteloot H, Sans S, Kromhout D: Dynamics of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in Western and Eastern Europe between 1970 and 2000. Eur Heart J. 2006, 27 (1): 107-113. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi511.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Antonio Giordano UGIRM: From the laboratory bench to the patient's bedside: An update on clinical trials with mesenchymal stem cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2007, 211 (1): 27-35. 10.1002/jcp.20959.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stefan Bajada IMJBRNA: Updates on stem cells and their applications in regenerative medicine. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 2008, 2 (4): 169-183. 10.1002/term.83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jawad H, Lyon AR, Harding SE, Ali NN, Boccaccini AR: Myocardial tissue engineering. Br Med Bull. 2008, 87 (1): 31-47. 10.1093/bmb/ldn026.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dai W, Hale SL, Martin BJ, Kuang J-Q, Dow JS, Wold LE, Kloner RA: Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Postinfarcted Rat Myocardium: Short- and Long-Term Effects. Circulation. 2005, 112 (2): 214-223. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.527937.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Jakoniuk I, Anderson SM, Li B, Pickel J, McKay R, Nadal-Ginard B, Bodine DM: Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature. 2001, 410 (6829): 701-10.1038/35070587.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collins SD, Baffour R, Waksman R: Cell therapy in myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine. 2007, 8 (1): 43-10.1016/j.carrev.2006.11.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dimmeler S, Burchfield J, Zeiher AM: Cell-Based Therapy of Myocardial Infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007Google Scholar
- Sadat S, Gehmert S, Song YH, Yen Y, Bai X, Gaiser S, Klein H, Alt E: The cardioprotective effect of mesenchymal stem cells is mediated by IGF-I and VEGF. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007, 363 (3): 674-679. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.09.058.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kinnaird T, Stabile E, Burnett MS, Lee CW, Barr S, Fuchs S, Epstein SE: Marrow-derived stromal cells express genes encoding a broad spectrum of arteriogenic cytokines and promote in vitro and in vivo arteriogenesis through paracrine mechanisms. Circ Res. 2004, 94 (5): 678-685. 10.1161/01.RES.0000118601.37875.AC.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masuda S, Shimizu T, Yamato M, Okano T: Cell sheet engineering for heart tissue repair. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008, 60 (2): 277-285. 10.1016/j.addr.2007.08.031.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoon J, Shim WJ, Ro YM, Lim DS: Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes by direct cell-to-cell contact with neonatal cardiomyocyte but not adult cardiomyocytes. Ann Hematol. 2005, 84 (11): 715-721. 10.1007/s00277-005-1068-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Menasche P: You Can't Judge a Book by Its Cover. Circulation. 2006, 113 (10): 1275-1277. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.610287.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nygren JM, Jovinge S, Breitbach M, Sawen P, Roll W, Hescheler J, Taneera J, Fleischmann BK, Jacobsen SE: Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells generate cardiomyocytes at a low frequency through cell fusion, but not transdifferentiation. Nat Med. 2004, 10 (5): 494-501. 10.1038/nm1040.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murry CE, Soonpaa MH, Reinecke H, Nakajima H, Nakajima HO, Rubart M, Pasumarthi KB, Virag JI, Bartelmez SH, Poppa V: Haematopoietic stem cells do not transdifferentiate into cardiac myocytes in myocardial infarcts. Nature. 2004, 428 (6983): 664-668. 10.1038/nature02446.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alvarez-Dolado M, Pardal R, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Fike JR, Lee HO, Pfeffer K, Lois C, Morrison SJ, Alvarez-Buylla A: Fusion of bone-marrow-derived cells with Purkinje neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes. Nature. 2003, 425 (6961): 968-10.1038/nature02069.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kajstura J, Rota M, Whang B, Cascapera S, Hosoda T, Bearzi C, Nurzynska D, Kasahara H, Zias E, Bonafe M: Bone marrow cells differentiate in cardiac cell lineages after infarction independently of cell fusion. Circ Res. 2005, 96 (1): 127-137. 10.1161/01.RES.0000151843.79801.60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Driesen RB, Dispersyn GD, Verheyen FK, Eijnde van den SM, Hofstra L, Thone F, Dijkstra P, Debie W, Borgers M, Ramaekers FC: Partial cell fusion: a newly recognized type of communication between dedifferentiating cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2005, 68 (1): 37-46. 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.05.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Plotnikov EY, Khryapenkova TG, Vasileva AK, Marey MV, Galkina SI, Isaev NK, Sheval EV, Polyakov VY, Sukhikh GT, Zorov DB: Cell-to-cell cross-talk between mesenchymal stem cells and cardiomyocytes in co-culture. J Cell Mol Med. 2008, 12 (5A): 1622-1631. 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00205.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tropel P, Noel D, Platet N, Legrand P, Benabid AL, Berger F: Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem cells from adult mouse bone marrow. Exp Cell Res. 2004, 295 (2): 395-406. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.12.030.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Urbán VS, Kiss J, Kovács J, Gócza E, Vas V, Edot , Monostori v, Uher F: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cooperate with Bone Marrow Cells in Therapy of Diabetes. Stem Cells. 2008, 26 (1): 244-253. 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0267.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan LD: The analysis of articular cartilage after thermal exposure: "Is red really dead?". Arthroscopy. 2003, 19 (3): 310-313. 10.1053/jars.2003.50087.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koyanagi M, Brandes RP, Haendeler J, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S: Cell-to-Cell Connection of Endothelial Progenitor Cells With Cardiac Myocytes by Nanotubes: A Novel Mechanism for Cell Fate Changes?. Circ Res. 2005, 96 (10): 1039-1041. 10.1161/01.RES.0000168650.23479.0c.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Onfelt B, Nedvetzki S, Yanagi K, Davis DM: Cutting edge: Membrane nanotubes connect immune cells. J Immunol. 2004, 173 (3): 1511-1513.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Onfelt B, Purbhoo MA, Nedvetzki S, Sowinski S, Davis DM: Long-distance calls between cells connected by tunneling nanotubules. Sci STKE. 2005, 2005 (313): pe55-10.1126/stke.3132005pe55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spees JL, Olson SD, Whitney MJ, Prockop DJ: Mitochondrial transfer between cells can rescue aerobic respiration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103 (5): 1283-1288. 10.1073/pnas.0510511103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gnecchi M, Zhang Z, Ni A, Dzau VJ: Paracrine Mechanisms in Adult Stem Cell Signaling and Therapy. Circ Res. 2008, 103 (11): 1204-1219. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.176826.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paul WMF: Paracrine Effects of Cell Transplantation: Modifying Ventricular Remodeling in the Failing Heart. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2008, 20 (2): 87-10.1053/j.semtcvs.2008.04.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi M, Li TS, Suzuki R, Kobayashi T, Ito H, Ikeda Y, Matsuzaki M, Hamano K: Cytokines produced by bone marrow cells can contribute to functional improvement of the infarcted heart by protecting cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006, 291 (2): H886-893. 10.1152/ajpheart.00142.2006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Uemura R, Xu M, Ahmad N, Ashraf M: Bone marrow stem cells prevent left ventricular remodeling of ischemic heart through paracrine signaling. Circ Res. 2006, 98 (11): 1414-1421. 10.1161/01.RES.0000225952.61196.39.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishikawa F, Shimazu H, Shultz LD, Fukata M, Nakamura R, Lyons B, Shimoda K, Shimoda S, Kanemaru T, Nakamura K: Purified human hematopoietic stem cells contribute to the generation of cardiomyocytes through cell fusion. Faseb J. 2006, 20 (7): 950-952. 10.1096/fj.05-4863fje.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lacza Z, Horvath E, Busija DW: Neural stem cell transplantation in cold lesion: a novel approach for the investigation of brain trauma and repair. Brain Research Protocols. 2003, 11 (3): 145-10.1016/S1385-299X(03)00039-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garbade J, Schubert A, Rastan AJ, Lenz D, Walther T, Gummert JF, Dhein S, Mohr F-W: Fusion of bone marrow-derived stem cells with cardiomyocytes in a heterologous in vitro model. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2005, 28 (5): 685-10.1016/j.ejcts.2005.06.047.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kajstura J, Rota M, Whang B, Cascapera S, Hosoda T, Bearzi C, Nurzynska D, Kasahara H, Zias E, Bonafe M: Bone Marrow Cells Differentiate in Cardiac Cell Lineages After Infarction Independently of Cell Fusion. Circ Res. 2005, 96 (1): 127-137. 10.1161/01.RES.0000151843.79801.60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rose RA, Jiang H, Wang X, Helke S, Tsoporis JN, Gong N, Keating SC, Parker TG, Backx PH, Keating A: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells express cardiac-specific markers, retain the stromal phenotype, and do not become functional cardiomyocytes in vitro. Stem Cells. 2008, 26 (11): 2884-2892. 10.1634/stemcells.2008-0329.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Horackova M, Arora R, Chen R, Armour JA, Cattini PA, Livingston R, Byczko Z: Cell transplantation for treatment of acute myocardial infarction: unique capacity for repair by skeletal muscle satellite cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004, 287 (4): H1599-1608. 10.1152/ajpheart.00965.2003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu M, Wani M, Dai YS, Wang J, Yan M, Ayub A, Ashraf M: Differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into the cardiac phenotype requires intercellular communication with myocytes. Circulation. 2004, 110 (17): 2658-2665. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000145609.20435.36.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.