Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells
© Sauder et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 19 February 2014
Accepted: 22 May 2014
Published: 10 June 2014
Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture.
All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells.
The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools.
KeywordsPlasticity Breast Metaplasia Squamous Basal Embryonic Epithelium
The Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center is a biorepository established expressly for the acquisition of normal, i.e. healthy, breast tissue from volunteer donors [8, 9]. To increase the availability of a prohibitively limited resource, epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. During this process it has become apparent that all of the epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Classic germ layer theory posits that some of these cell types have their origin in the ectoderm but others are derived from the mesoderm or neural crest. However, here is a growing body of evidence to suggest that explant culture conditions, such as were utilized to isolate these cells, select cells that are multipotent [10–14]. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed by KTB mimics that seen in MCB and it is tempting to postulate that these tumors arise from similar multipotent or plastic cells as described in the present study.
All studies were approved by the Indiana University Institutional Review Board (IRB-04; protocol number 0709–17; and NS1006-04). All research was carried out in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration.
The original purpose of this study was the characterization of the epithelial cells derived from the donated normal breast tissue. Initial studies included immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of epithelial cytokeratins, myoepithelial markers and hormone receptors; and ploidy analysis. The first evidence of plasticity was observed in the Matrigel® cultures. This observation shifted the focus of this study to an assay of the epithelial plasticity. As Matrigel® is a mixture of collagen, laminin and fibronectin, cells were grown on each of these surfaces to determine if any one of these proteins was responsible for the transformed phenotype. Preliminary cell type identifications were made based upon shape, size and intracellular components on phase contrast microscopy. Colorimetric assays and immunohistochemistry were utilized to provide additional evidence as to the cells’ identities. Alcian blue is routinely used in pathology laboratories to identify cartilage and nestin expression is a marker of neural stem cells. However, as both have been noted in normal breast epithelium [15, 16], additional makers of chondrocytic and neural differentiation that are specific to the cell type were assayed.
After obtaining informed consent, a 10 gauge core needle was used to obtain breast tissue (<100 mg) from 39 healthy female volunteers with no history of breast disease (see Additional file 1: Table S1 for age, race, and Gail risk score) . The tissue was immediately homogenized, digested with collagenase and hyaluronidase, and cultured using selective media and trypsinization to differentiate the epithelial cells from stromal cells as previously described [17–21]. The KTB HME cells (K-HME; K-HME 490, K-HME 509, K-HME 538, K-HME 496, and K-HME 511) were obtained from frozen stocks, thawed, and suspended in WIT-P media (Stemgen, San Diego, CA, USA) unless otherwise stated (see Additional file 2: Methods) then plated onto Primaria-coated T-25 flasks (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA, USA). The majority of experiments used cells prior to passage four; no follow-up experiments utilized cells beyond passage 14. Cells were cultured at 37°C, in an environment of 95% relative humidity and 5% CO2.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere probes from chromosome X (CEPX) and chromosome 17 (CEP17) were performed as described by Grimes and colleagues .
3-D Matrigel® culture
125,000 K-HME cells were grown in the middle of a Matrigel® (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA, USA) sandwich culture in a 24-well plate. After approximately 10 days, the cultures were encapsulated in HistoGel™ (Richard-Allen Scientific, Kalamazoo, MI, USA), formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed by the IUH Pathology Laboratory using the Dako AutostainerPlus (Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA) and the protocols given in Additional file 1: Table S2. The primary antibody was eliminated to prepare the negative controls of all immunohistochemistry reactions.
Differentiation analyses of cultures grown on coated surfaces
6-well plates coated with Type IV Collagen, Laminin, Fibronectin, and Primaria™ surface treatment were obtained from BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA, USA). 6.5 × 105 K-HME cells were pipetted onto each of the coated surfaces of the culture plates. Cells were incubated for 10–12 days with a change of media every other day. The Alcian blue pH 2.5 Stain Kit (Artisan™, Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA) was used per manufacturer’s instructions.
Two wells of a 4-well culture slide (Lab-Tek, Scotts Valley, CA, USA, #154526) were coated with collagen (Stem Cell Technologies, Vancouver, BC, Canada; #04902) and 2.5 × 104 cells were plated per well. The cells were grown on the surface of the slide or on the collagen in WIT-P media for 6 days. Cells were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Anti-Collagen II and X IHC was carried out as given in Additional file 1: Table S2.
Cell culture plates, cell number and incubation duration are as given for chondrocytic differentiation. The TRACP & ALP double-stain kit (Takara, Shiga, Japan) was used per manufacturer’s instructions.
Cell culture plates, cell number and incubation duration are as given for chondrocytic differentiation. Cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde (4% paraformaldehyde, 0.15% picric acid in PBS) for 1 hour at RT and then incubated with Oil Red O (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) for 1 hour at 37°C.
Human Type IV Collagen was obtained from BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA, USA) and diluted 1:5 in 10 mM acetic acid). 125 μl of the collagen solution was used to coat the bottom of each well of the 8-well culture slides (BD Falcon, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA; cat. no. 354118). Human nestin monoclonal antibody (Clone 196908, MAB 1259), neuron-specific beta-III tubulin monoclonal antibody (Clone TuJ-1, MAB 1195), and NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated sheep polyclonal anti-human GFAP (NL2594R) were obtained from R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Human nestin and neuron-specific beta-III tubulin antibody solutions were diluted 1:100 in blocking buffer (BB) and incubated with the cells overnight at 4°C. Anti-human GFAP was diluted 1:10 in BB and incubated with the cells for 3 hours in the dark at RT. Cells and primary antibody were incubated with secondary antibody (1:200 in BB; Northern Lights™ fluorescent secondary antibody NL- 557 anti- Mouse IgG (NL007); R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) for 1 hour in the dark at RT. They then were incubated for 5 minutes with 300 nM DAPI (Molecular Probes, Grand Island, NY, USA) in the dark. They were stored at 4°C until microscopy.
Two wells of a 4-well culture slide (Lab-Tek, Scotts Valley, CA, USA, #154526) were coated with collagen (Stem Cell Technologies, Vancouver, BC, Canada; #04902) and 2.5 × 104 cells were plated per well. The cells were grown on the surface of the slide or on the collagen in WIT-P media for 6 days. Cells were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Neu-N IHC was carried out as given in Additional file 1: Table S2.
Two wells of a 4-well culture slide (BD Falcon, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA; #354104) were coated with collagen (Stem Cell Technologies, Vancouver, BC, Canada; #04902) and 3 × 104 cells were plated per well. The cells were grown on the surface of the slide or on the collagen, and in either Melanocyte Growth Medium (ZenBio, Inc., Durham, NC, USA) or WIT-P. After 3 days, the cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Anti-MART-1 IHC was carried out as given in Additional file 1: Table S2.
Normal human dermal fibroblasts and Type 1 Collagen (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) were mixed, polymerized and cultured as previously described  with modifications. After allowing 2 days for the fibroblasts to contract and reorganize the tissue, K-HME cells were plated on the upper surface at a concentration to provide a confluent monolayer of cells (200,000 cells per cm2). Culture continued for 2 days submerged in keratinocyte medium  with 20 μg/ml ascorbic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). For air/liquid interface culture, tissues were transferred to clear Transwell 6-well inserts (Corning Costar, Tewksbury, MA, USA) and placed into deep-well dishes (BioCoat, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) for the remainder of the culture period. 16 hours prior to harvest, cultures were treated with 10 μM 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) to label proliferating cells. Samples were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days then prepared for frozen sections.
5 × 105 cells in WIT-P media were plated per well of a chamber slide (BD Falcon, San Jose, CA, USA) and the cells incubated overnight. Cells were fixed using 4% paraformadehyde, 0.15% picric acid in 1 × PBS for 20 minutes at RT. OCT4, NANOG and MyoD immunohistochemistry were performed per the protocols given in Additional file 1: Table S2. EGFR IHC was performed using the EGFR (Dako) RTU primary antibody and the EGFR pharmDX Kit (Dako), which was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Cells grown on chamber slides (BD Falcon, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (10 min.) and permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 (10 min.) before blocking with 3% BSA in 1 × PBS (1 hr). Primary antibodies (CK 5/6, CK 8/18, CK 14, CK 19, EMA, SMA, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; p63, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA; vimentin, Cell Signaling, Danvers, MA, USA) were diluted 1:100 in 1% BSA in 1 × PBS and incubated with the cells for 2 hrs. Binding of a 1:600 dilution of appropriate Alexa-Fluor 468 anti-mouse IgG or Alexa-Fluor 588 anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA) in 1% BSA in 1 × PBS occurred during 1 hr. The slides were mounted with Vectashield containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) and cells were examined using a Leica fluorescent microscope (where exposure time and gain settings were set according to the background levels of the secondary antibody only sample).
Cells were incubated overnight at 4°C with anti-human Nucleostemin (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA; AF1638, 10 μg/ml). Cells and primary antibody were incubated with a 1:200 dilution of Northern Lights™ anti-goat IgG (NL493) for 1 hour in the dark. Cells were washed and incubated with DAPI as above. Confocal microscopy was performed using an Olympus FV1000-MPE Confocal/Multiphoton Microscope; absorption 493 nm, emission 514 nm.
For organotypic cultures, frozen sections were permeabilized with 80% MeOH for 5 min. at 4°C and acetone for 2 min. at −20°C prior to staining. Nonspecific staining was blocked by 10% goat serum. Sections were incubated for one hour in a PBS solution containing one of the following primary antibodies: Keratin-10 (1:200, clone DE-K10; Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), E-Cadherin (1:400, clone EP700Y; Epitomics, Burlingame, CA, USA), Involucrin (1:200, clone SY5; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), Keratin-14 (1:200; Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), or p63 (1:100, clone EPP5701; Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA). Primary antibodies were visualized by staining one hour with goat anti-mouse rhodamine red or goat anti-rabbit Alexa 488 (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Nuclei were counterstained with 30-minute incubation with Hoechst stain (1:2000; Invitrogen Carlsbad, CA, USA). Double-staining for keratin-14 and involucrin was described previously . EdU was visualized using a kit as per manufacturer’s instructions (Click-It, C10337; Invitrogen). Stained slides were viewed and photographed using an IX-71 inverted fluorescence microscope with DP71 camera and cellSens software (Olympus Imaging America Inc, Center Valley, PA, USA).
The negative controls of all immunofluorescence were isotype antibodies used at the identical concentration.
100 μL of K-HME 496 cell suspension (10 cells/ml WIT-P) was added to each well of two Primaria 96 well plates and two collagen-coated 96 well plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA). Cells were observed at day 1 of culture to identify wells with one cell only present and then subsequently observed for the growth of colonies from the single cell.
Telomerase activity by the Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP)
Flow cytometry was carried out using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) and the CellQuest program to capture at least 10,000 events.
Human embryonic stem cell total RNA was obtained from Celprogen (San Pedro, CA, USA). Total RNA was isolated from the K-HME cells using the miRNeasy® Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). PCR amplification was carried out using a BioRad CFX96 Real-Time System C1000 (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA). cDNA was synthesized using the Tetro cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bioline, Tauton, MA, USA). 100 ng of cDNA mixed with 5 μL 2× SensiMix SYBR N0-Rox Kit (Bioline) and 200 nM of each primer (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA: OCT4 (POU5F1) primer/probe set, Hs04260367_gH, cat# 4351372, NANOG primer/probe set Hs04260366_g1, cat# 4351372; and GAPDH primer/probe set, Hs99999905_m1, cat# 4331182) in a final volume of 10 μL.
K-HME cells express common epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunohistochemistry
Characterization of the cells by protein expression. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed, and expression of various markers evaluated as a function of growth surface and media
The majority of K-HME cells are diploid
Cell phenotype of the K-HME cells in the presence of basement membrane proteins
Immunohistochemistry was repeated on sections showing squamous differentiation. In comparison to cells in 2-D culture, these cells strongly expressed the epidermal growth factor receptor and vimentin; did not express SMA (Additional file 3: Figure S1A,C,E) and contained a few, scattered CD10 positive cells (Additional file 3: Figure S1D). Single cells appeared CK18 positive; however, those cells within the spheres were very weakly CK 18 positive; ER, PR, HER2 remained negative.
Spindle-shape cells with Oil Red O positive cytoplasmic vacuoles consistent with adipocytes were observed (Figure 5Ci, ii). In other areas of the cell culture, a sheet of MyoD expressing cells was seen (Figure 5Di, ii). Numerous cells with long, dendritic processes expressed nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and beta-III tubulin (Figure 5Ei). Immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed at the neuron-specific nuclear protein NeuN (or Neuronal Nuclei)  showed uniform nuclear staining (Figure 5Eii) in a fraction of cells when grown on collagen but not on Primaria. A subpopulation of cells expressed the melanocyte differentiation antigen MART-1 (Figure 5F). The addition of BMP4 or neuregulin to the culture media did not enhance osseous or neural differentiation, respectively. Growth of the cells in Melanocyte Growth Medium did not promote the expression of MART-1.
Analysis of a single cell suspension of K-HME 496 cells revealed that the various cell types are represented in a colony that grew from a single cell (Additional file 3: Figure S3). Each cell type represented only a fraction of the total cells (Additional file 3: Figure S4A). Flow cytometric analysis determined that 25% of cells expressed CD151 (chondrocyte) [32, 33] and 5% expressed the Calcitonin R (osteoclast)  (Additional file 3: Figure S4B).
Expression of breast stem cell markers in K-HME cells
Identification of the mammary epithelial stem cell has been a “source of much contention” . Methodologies utilized for the identification include mammosphere culture, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and recapitulation of the mammary gland by single cells in vivo. “Since metaplasia often involves the transformation of undifferentiated stem or progenitor cells…” , metaplastic ability may be another attribute of these cells.
While no single marker can be considered to be cell-type specific, the preponderance of evidence presented in this paper including cellular phenotype, colorimetric reactions and multiple immunostains suggest that the K-HME cells are multipotent. Explant culture conditions select cells that are multipotent. Multipotency has been demonstrated for explant cultures of the hair follicle, bronchiole and intestine [10–14]. Sieber-Blum and colleagues showed that cells from bulge explants of whiskers of transgenic mice are pluripotent, differentiating into neurons, smooth muscle, Schwann cell, melanocytes, and chondrocytes . Using Wnt10cre/R26R double transgenic mice, they were able to trace these cells to the neural crest. A subsequent study by Yu et al. confirmed differentiation into neurons, muscle cells, endothelial cell, adipocytes and osteoblasts . The cell line developed by Delgado and colleagues from bronchiole explants co-express differentiation markers for multiple cell types of the lung and give rise to all lung epithelial lineages . Intestinal explant cultures or “organoids” are multi-cellular aggregates of intestinal mucosal progenitors and putative mucosal stem cells, which have been seeded onto scaffolds in tissue engineering experiments to create neointestines [13, 14]. The cells most competent to emerge from tissue explant cultures would appear to be the basal cells, which display the highest level of potency . Similarly, the epithelial cells described herein established by outgrowth from explant culture are basal and retain multipotency. Both Delgado et al. and Yu et al. suggest that their isolated cells resemble multipotent embryonic progenitors either in terms multi-lineage differentiation and/or expression of NANOG and OCT4. Human lung stem cells isolated by Wang and colleagues express NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4 . Indeed, expression of OCT4 and NANOG has been reported in rare cells within adult tissues including bone marrow, epidermis, bronchial epithelium, myocardium, pancreas and testes . Likewise a subpopulation of K-HME cells express OCT4 and NANOG. K-HME cells also display multiple nucleoli, a characteristic of human embryonic stem cells .
A recent publication from the laboratory of Tlsty and colleagues reports findings similar to the ones presented in this manuscript . The cells utilized for their studies were isolated by a completely different method, i.e., the selection by flow cytometry of cells from reduction mammoplasties that, after lineage depletion, are CD73 positive and CD90 negative. These cells are also pluripotent and express a number of genes reported to confer multi-and pluipotency at levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. Although there are a number of similarities to the K-HMEs there are also some differences, e.g., their cells are EpCAM positive, and differentiation was effected by the addition of growth factors and supplements to the media. These differences notwithstanding, the fact that two independent laboratories using different methods have identified pluripotent, plastic cells in the breast lends credence to this discovery.
The epithelial cells described herein are metaplastic. They express basal cytokeratins 5 and 14, which are the hallmarks of the basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia , and myoepithelial cells/basal cells of the normal breast. However, a subset of luminal cells in the terminal ducts also express cytokeratin 5 . In the mouse mammary gland, the basal cell fraction is enriched in mammary stem cells . The expression of the luminal cytokeratins 8 and 18, and of vimentin in WIT-P media is of interest. WIT-P media in contrast to MEGM contains all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which has been shown to significantly increase the expression of cytokeratins 8, 18, 19, vimentin and ICAM-1 in oral gingival cells in vitro 42]. It also increases expression of these cytokeratins in T47D breast cancer cells . Ince, Weinberg and colleagues, selected primary breast epithelial cells by their growth in WIT-P media and transfected them with hTERT, SV-40 LT/st and H-ras-v12. The xenograft tumors formed from these cells expressed cytokeratins 8 and 18 and resembled human invasive ductal carcinoma . Those cells selected by their growth in MEGM resulted in tumors with squamous differentiation that lacked CK8/18 expression. p63, which is routinely used as a marker of myoepithelial cells, is strongly expressed by the K-HME cells. However, it is also a stem cell marker in the epidermis and limbal epithelium . In p63-null mice, the epithelium fails to stratify, and mammary buds or other epidermal appendages do not form . Pellegrini and colleagues have argued that the phenotype of p63-null mice should be ascribed to a failure to maintain the stem cell compartment. This would suggest that p63 marks the stem cells of the epidermal appendages, which includes the mammary glands, as well as the epidermis and limbic epithelium. It is entirely possible that the K-HME cells are the p63, CK14 and nestin positive cells identified by Li et al. in the basal/myoepithelial layer of the mammary gland . K-HME cells are EpCAM negative and CD49f positive by FACS analysis, an immunophenotype ascribed by Lim et al. to the mammary stem cell enriched population .
The differentiation of human breast cells obtained from outgrowth of organoids into squames is well described . The ability of these basal cells to form “relatively large spherical structures with a central core of squamous metaplasia” on basement membrane has also been noted [49, 50]. Squamous differentiation of cells isolated from reduction mammoplasty has more recently been reported [51, 52]. Both nasal airway stem cells and tracheal airway stem cells form spheres of squamous cells “akin to squamous cell metaplasia” when grown on Matrigel® . It should be noted that the squamous differentiation observed in our study is contextual: In the middle of Matrigel®, the phenotype most closely represents a squamous carcinoma of the skin. This keratin pearl-like structure is the form assumed by squamous metaplasia in the breast both in benign (e.g. adenomyoepitheliomas) or malignant (e.g., metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma) lesions. It is also observed in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, esophagus, anus and even in a minority of tibial adamantinomas . This suggests a commonality in the pathophysiology of the metaplasia, that is, that basal/stem cells on becoming surrounded on all sides by basement membrane/stroma form keratin pearl structures. The fact that this is observed in normal cells raises the possibility that metaplasia is a property of all epithelia, which is kept in check by the normal microenvironment and tissue polarity. In a study conducted by Miyoshi and colleagues using transgenic mice, stabilization of β-catenin expression through MMTV-Cre-induced deletion of exon 3 results in reversion to epidermis and squamous metaplasia in the mammary tumors that develop therein . This squamous metaplasia resembles that seen in the Matrigel® sandwich cultures in that there is a cyst-like/nodular structure with keratin in the middle encircled by a stratified epithelium. These investigators suggest that the differentiation of the mammary gland as a secretory epithelium requires suppression of β-catenin signaling, and absent this repression the phenotype reverts to epidermis . In other words, the default genetic program for epithelial cells in the breast may be epidermis and their differentiation into a gland requires, at a minimum, the repression of the default program, if not a concomitant activation of a program that results in gland formation.
How can differentiation into these various cell types be explained? Boecker and colleagues recently published a study of salivary gland tumors of the breast and histologically similar tumors of the salivary and lacrimal glands . They utilized triple immunofluorescence to trace the lineage of cells within these tumors. The results of their study led them to hypothesize that there are K5/K14/p63-positive progenitor cells within these neoplasms that give rise to glandular epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells, as well as the squamous and mesenchymal cells. The K-HME cells may be the progenitor cells hypothesized by Boecker et al.
Eric Neilson has suggested that terminal differentiation rather than being an end point is a lay-over point: “…terminal differentiation is really just an evolutionary pause maintained by signaling events, transcription factors, and genomic setting” . Neilson and his colleague, Michael Zeisberg, have proposed that epithelial plasticity is comprised of two processes: Metaplasia (transdifferentiation) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [57, 58]. EMT can further be divided into three types [58, 59]. Type 1 EMT functions in early embryogenesis when it is involved in gastrulation and neural crest migration. Type 2 EMT is the formation of fibroblasts from secondary epithelial cells or endothelial cells. Type 3 EMT facilitates the metastasis of epithelial cells in a process that includes the loss of intercellular connections, migration and the establishment of residence in a secondary location.
Metaplasia is often composed of the tissue type normally derived from the neighboring region of the embryo [36, 60]. A dividing line forms between these two regions at a point where an inducer is at its threshold concentration . If a stem cell originally residing in this region and now in one of the resulting adult tissues retains bidirectional tissue potential, an inciting event after birth, e.g., infection, wounding, tissue regeneration, could tip the balance resulting in an homeotic transformation. The cells that eventually form the breast begin their life as ectoderm, which borders the neural crest. Neural crest cells form cartilage, bone, nerve and smooth muscle in face and cranium; as well as the peripheral nervous system and a number of neuroendocrine cell types. Pleomorphic adenomas, tumors that also display areas of bone and cartilage formation, are hypothesized to have a contribution from neural crest cells based upon the expression of GFAP . Human genetic disorders may provide an additional clue. Mutation of p63 is responsible for Limb-mammary syndrome (OMIM #603543), the features of which include hypoplasia/aplasia of the mammary gland and cleft palate. That the phenotype is manifest in tissues derived from the ectoderm and neural crest suggests that the mutation was present in a progenitor of both lineages. Are the K-HMEs just such a cell? If so, the observed phenotypic plasticity observed in the K-HME cells may be more akin to Type 1 rather than Type 3 EMT.
Within the normal human breast are epithelial cells with phenotypic plasticity. They are likely the source of metaplasia. Metaplasia may offer a wealth of clues with regard to normal and pathologic physiology. The human body has regulated differentiation so that specialized tissues and cells are generated and located/arranged to enable the organism to survive, thrive and function. When this differentiation goes awry, it should prompt the question: Why? What is a chondrocyte doing in the breast? Many tissues have been shown to contain cells that are pluri/multipotent. These cells function in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis or the restoration of tissue integrity following wounding or remodeling. The plasticity of the K-HME cells mimics that seen in MCB and it is tempting to postulate that these tumors arise from similar multipotent or plastic cells. The differentiation repertoire of these cells may be circumscribed under normal physiologic conditions by the tissue microenvironment. Alteration of the microenvironment by a mechanical and/or disease processes may release the restrictions enabling the metaplastic phenotype to become evident.
All-trans retinoic acid
Bone morphogenetic protein 4
Bovine serum albumin
Epithelial membrane antigen
Fluorescence activated cell sorting
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Glial fibrillary acidic protein
Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2
Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution
Human mammary epithelial
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase
Internal standard control
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1
Institutional review board
Indiana University Health
Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center
Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center
Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast
Mammary epithelial growth medium
Mouse mammary tumor virus
Mammary stem cell
National Institutes of Health
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
Phosphate buffered saline
Polymerase chain reaction
Smooth muscle actin
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase
This work was funded by grants from Susan G. Komen for the Cure (SEC, SB, BH), Oracle Giving (SEC, BH), The Breast Cancer Research Foundation (MC, SEC), the Catherine Peachey Fund (MR, SEC), the Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine (SEC, CAMS), a fellowship from the IUSCC Cancer Biology Training Program (JK), the IU Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center (IUSCC), and the Indiana Genomics Initiative (INGEN) supported in part by the Lilly Endowment, Inc. (BH, BRG, SEC). Publication costs were defrayed by donations received at the Solheim Pink Bow Luncheon in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA. CAMS was the recipient of an NIH loan repayment award in Health Disparities Research. Devin L. Blunck and Lindsay N. Hughes provided excellent technical assistance. The authors are grateful to Jay Sharma of Celprogen (San Pedro, CA, USA) for his assistance with the quantitative PCR reactions. Drs. George W. Sledge, Jr., Eric A. Wiebke and Keith D. Lillemoe were unstinting in their support of the KTB. The authors thank Dr. Anna Maria Storniolo and the staff of the KTB; and the thousands of donors and hundreds of volunteers who have selflessly given of themselves to enable the success of the Komen Tissue Bank.
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