H-RN, a peptide derived from hepatocyte growth factor, inhibits corneal neovascularization by inducing endothelial apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle
© Sun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 26 September 2012
Accepted: 20 February 2013
Published: 24 February 2013
The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of a novel peptide H-RN, derived from the hepatocyte growth factor kringle 1 domain (HGF K1), in a mouse model of corneal neovascularization. The anti-angiogenic effect of H-RN on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated cell proliferation, cell migration and endothelial cell tube formation was assessed in vitro using Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and in vivo using a mouse cornea micropocket assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed by flow cytometry. A scrambled peptide was used as a negative control.
H-RN effectively inhibited VEGF-stimulated HUVEC proliferation, migration and tube formation on Matrigel, while a scrambled peptide exerted no effect. In the mouse model of corneal angiogenesis, VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by H-RN compared to a scrambled peptide that had no such activity. VEGF protected HUVECs from apoptosis, while H-RN inhibited this protective effect of VEGF. VEGF significantly increased the proportion of cells in the S phase compared to control treated cells (p<0.05). Treatment with H-RN (1.5 mM) induced the accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase, while the proportion of cells in the S phase and G2/M phase decreased significantly compared to control group (p<0.05).
H-RN has anti-angiogenic activity in HUVECs and in a mouse model of VEGF-induced corneal neovascularization. The anti-angiogenic activity of H-RN was related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, indicating a potential strategy for anti-angiogenic treatment in the cornea.
KeywordsH-RN Peptide HUVECs Cornea Neovascularization
The transparency and refraction properties of a normal, healthy cornea are predominantly mediated by its avascularity. However, many pathological processes affecting the cornea, including trauma, inflammation, infection, toxicity and nutritional insults, may lead to corneal neovascularization . While this process may be beneficial in wound healing, clearance of infections and arresting progressive immune-mediated corneal melts, neovascularization may reduce corneal transparency by growing into the normally vascular-free cornea tissue, bleeding into the cornea and causing lipid deposition, tissue swelling and scarring . Corneal neovascularization may significantly impair visual acuity and the immune privilege of the cornea, and may also worsen the prognosis of corneal transplantation [3–6]. The prevalence of corneal neovascularization ranges from 125,000-470,000 individuals in the population wearing soft contact lenses  and is associated with the second most common cause of blindness globally, and with the most common form of corneal blindness in developed countries .
Clinical ophthalmologists have been challenged with the treatment of sight-threatening corneal neovascularization for over 100 years . However, because age-related maculopathy is the major cause of blindness in the aged population in developed world, the anterior segment neovascularization inhibition still lags behind anti-angiogenesis at the posterior pole of the eye . The current clinical treatment for corneal angiogenesis primarily involves direct anti-angiogenesis agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib), indirect anti-angiogenesis agents (anti-inflammatory steroids and cyclosporine A) [8, 9], laser photocoagulation, fine-needle diathermy, photodynamic therapy  and conjunctival, limbal or amniotic membrane transplantation. However, regular application of corticosteroids may increase the risk of infection and induce cataracts and glaucoma . Other methods of treatment often require multiple treatment sessions with risks of severe complication arising, since significantly more laser energy is needed than that used for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, photodynamic therapy, which is reported to significantly inhibit corneal neovascularization, only blocks existing neovascularization, but does not prevent pathological angiogenesis. Currently, treatments targeting the molecular mediators of angiogenesis are widely studied and represent the ideal choice for therapy. VEGF is a major mediator of the angiogenic process. Numerous therapeutic strategies targeting VEGF are being studied [11, 12]. New therapeutic agents, including pegaptanib, ranibizumab and particularly bevacizumab, are reported to be effective in inhibiting corneal neovascularization. However, the extremely high annual treatment cost of these agents has limited their widespread use and systemic adverse events have been reported [13, 14].
The design and development of peptides to inhibit angiogenesis is an important area in anti-angiogenic drug development . In comparison to proteins, peptides display lower immunogenicity, higher solubility in water, stable production methods, improved consistency between batches and are superior at targeting and penetrating tumors . Previously, we identified a novel peptide, H-RN, derived from the hepatocyte growth factor kringle 1 domain (HGF K1), and demonstrated that it has anti-angiogenic activity to retinal neovascularization in a mouse model . In the current study, we further investigated the ability of H-RN to inhibit corneal neovascularization and possible anti-angiogenesis mechanisms. Our study may lead to new potential drug discoveries and the development of novel treatments for pathological retinal and corneal angiogenesis.
H-RN inhibits HUVEC proliferation
HUVECs migration towards VEGF is inhibited by H-RN
H-RN inhibits HUVEC tube formation in Matrigel
H-RN inhibits corneal angiogenesis in a mouse model
Quantitative analysis of cornea neovascularization in different groups
Maximal vessel length (mm)
Vessel area (mm2)
1.16 ± 0.27
2.24 ± 0.25
1.62 ± 0.36
0.60 ± 0.16
2.04 ± 0.51
0.79 ± 0.36*
0.40 ± 0.18
1.28 ± 0.46
0.31 ± 0.18*
The effect of H-RN on the anti-apoptosis activity of VEGF
H-RN induces cell cycle arrest of HUVECs in G0/G1 phase
Corneal neovascularization may be caused by several pathogenic conditions, including inflammatory, ischemic, degenerative or traumatic diseases of the cornea and loss of the limbal stem cell barrier. To date, numerous models of corneal angiogenesis have been developed. Thermal injury and alkali-burn models have been utilized in many studies, since these are easy to perform and corneal neovascularization may be conveniently observed . Inflammation is the major mechanism of cornea angiogenesis in these models and these models were predominantly used in studies focused on inflammation. Infectious keratitis and corneal ulcers, which brought unstable experimental results and difficulties to precise quantitative analysis, are also commonly seen in these models. Mouse tumor models induce corneal neovascularization by intrastromal implantation of tumor cells in the rat or mouse cornea, where vessel growth is stimulated by tumor-secreted angiogenic factors, inflammation or immunologic mediators . We previously reported the anti-angiogenic activity of H-RN in a choroid-retinal endothelial cell line (RF/6A), in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy .
In the present study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of H-RN in VEGF-induced corneal neovascularization in vitro using HUVECs, and in vivo using a mouse cornea micropocket assay, which is dependent on direct stimulation of neovascularization rather than indirect stimulation by inflammation or tumors. Our results obtained from both in vitro and in vivo models were highly reproducible and easily quantifiable . In addition, VEGF was used as a direct angiogenesis stimulator in the models, thus providing meaningful results for the evaluation of an anti-VEGF and anti-angiogenic reagent.
Previously, we reported a new peptide derived from HGF, H-RN, which exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in a choroid-retinal endothelial cell line (RF/6A) and in the chick chorioallantoic membrane, as well as in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy . In the present study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of H-RN on corneal neovascularization. HUVECs were used for in vitro studies, and the effects of H-RN on VEGF-stimulated proliferation, cell migration and endothelial cell tube formation were investigated. Similar results were found as those obtained from our in vitro study of RF/6A cells. H-RN significantly inhibited HUVEC proliferation, migration and tube formation stimulated by VEGF. The inhibitory effects were particularly intense at high concentrations, though not dose-dependent. The scrambled peptide did not show any inhibitory effect at any concentration. In the mouse cornea micropocket assay, we found that VEGF significantly stimulated corneal angiogenesis. Neovascularization derived from the corneal limbus developed towards VEGF-containing pellets, with bushy and thick vessels migrating towards and over the surface of the white pellet. This growth was significantly inhibited following administration of H-RN. We infer that H-RN has the potential for treating pathological corneal neovascularization, and sustained release delivery may be an effective drug delivery option, although further investigation of H-RN pharmacokinetics is still required.
Li et al.  recently reported that topical administration of KH906, a recombinant human soluble VEGF receptor fusion protein, was capable of significantly inhibiting angiogenesis in an alkali burn corneal neovascularization rabbit model by topical administration. KH906 was administrated in three different concentrations; 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml. Rabbits received topical administration (50 μl) of the different solutions four times daily for 14 days. Corneal neovascularization was analyzed 10 and 14 days after chemical cauterization. In this study, corneal neovascularization was significantly reduced in KH906-treated groups compared to control treated animals. Compared to the effective peptide quantity in our study, the total drug quantity applied in Li’s study is much higher (250 μg vs 5 μg), indicating that H-RN has a much lower effective concentration than KH-906. Furthermore, the treatment cycle of H-RN is significantly shorter than KH-906 (7 d vs 14 d), and the production cost of H-RN is also lower than KH-906. In this study, the level of VEGF in the cornea in KH906-treated groups was significantly decreased. In our study, we found that the ability of H-RN to inhibit the anti-apoptotic activity of VEGF and to induce G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest is related to its anti-angiogenesis properties. Taken together, this demonstrates that both H-RN and KH-906 inhibit neovascularization through an anti-VEGF mechanism.
Previous reports have shown that VEGF may inhibit vascular endothelial cell apoptosis . We infer that H-RN may inhibit the anti-apoptosis activity of VEGF, as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis. It is well established that VEGF inhibits endothelial cells apoptosis via activation of the PI3K signaling pathway  and by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2 and A1 , important anti-apoptosis genes. Additional studies are required to determine whether H-RN inhibits activation of the PI3K signaling pathway or the expression of Bcl-2 and A1. We further investigated the effect of H-RN on the cell cycle of HUVECs, which may relate to its inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation. We observed a G0/G1 phase arrest in H-RN treated cells, indicating that H-RN inhibits DNA replication of HUVECs. Cyclin, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)  and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI)  are critical factors regulating the cell cycle. Future studies will aim to investigate the relationship between H-RN and these factors.
In summary, we show that H-RN, a small peptide derived from HGF, displays anti-angiogenic activity in HUVECs and effectively inhibits VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis in a mouse model. While our study indicates that the anti-angiogenic activity of H-RN is related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, further studies investigating the mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic activity of H-RN are necessary.
Cell culture and materials
HUVECs were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and maintained as monolayer cultures in endothelial cell medium (ECM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37°C in 5% CO2. Human VEGF was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). H-RN (RNPRGEEGGPW, molecular weight: 1254.34 Da) and a scrambled peptide were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis using an automatic peptide synthesizer (Symphony; Protein Technologies, Tucson, AZ). The end product was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; LC-20A, SHIMADZU, Kyoto, Japan) and mass spectrometry (MS; Finnigan TSQ 7000; Thermo, Waltham, MA).
Cell proliferation assay
Cell proliferation assays were performed as previously described [16, 25] using the CellTiter96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) kit (Promega, Madison WI, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, cells were seeded into 96-well plates (4.8×103cells/well). After 24 h, cells were serum-starved overnight and treated with 100 ng/ml human VEGF (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) and increasing concentrations of H-RN (0, 1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM or 1 mM) in 100 μL of serum free medium for 24 h. Following treatment, 20 μl of MTS reagent was added to each well and incubated for 4 h. The absorbance at 490 nm was recorded using a microplate reader (BIO-RAD, Model 680, USA). Each group was tested in triplicate and assays were repeated a minimum of three times.
Cell migration assay
Cell migration assays were performed as previously described with modifications [16, 26]. Briefly, HUVECs were starved overnight, trypsinized and suspended at a final concentration of 5×105 cells/ml. Cells were pre-incubated with various concentrations of peptides for 30 min at 37°C before seeding into Transwell chambers (tissue culture treated, 10 mm diameter, 8.0 μm pores; Corning Inc. New York, N.Y., USA), Cells (5×104) were seeded onto the upper Transwell chamber and VEGF (100 ng/ml) was placed into the lower chamber. The assembled cell culture insert chamber was then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. After removal of non-migrating cells in the upper chambers with a cotton swab, migrated cells on the lower surface of the porous membrane were fixed, stained with Gram’s stain and photographed under a light microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Five random fields (×200) were chosen in each insert and the cell number was quantified manually. Each experiment was repeated 3 times.
Endothelial cell tube formation assay
Tube formation assays to assess the formation of vascular-like structures by HUVECs on growth factor-reduced Matrigel (BD Biosciences) were performed as previously described [16, 27]. Cells (2.5×104) were pre-incubated with various concentrations of peptides (100 nM – 1 mM), seeded into 96-well culture plates pre-coated with Matrigel in serum free medium containing VEGF (100 ng/ml) and incubated at 37°C for 18 h. Tube formation was observed using an inverted phase contrast microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Images were captured with a digital camera (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). The degree of tube formation was quantified by measuring the length of tubes in three randomly chosen low power fields (×100) from each well using the Image-Pro Plus Program (version 5.1, Media Cybernetics, Inc. America). Each group was tested in triplicate. Each experiment was repeated 3 times.
Corneal neovascularization model
Male C57BL/6J mice (7-9 weeks old) were obtained from the Shanghai Laboratory Animal Centre, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All experiments were consistent with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The animals were divided into four groups. A corneal micropocket assays were performed as previously described on one eye of each mouse [19, 28] using pellets comprising the slow-release polymer Hydro (polyhydroxyethylrnethacrylate [polyHEMA]) and sucralfate. 0.5 μl PBS containing 160 ng VEGF or not was added on to each pellet. Pellets containing VEGF were then resuspended with 1 μg or 5 μg of peptides, and these pellets were only used in VEGF treated group, while pellets containing PBS were used in control group. All pellets were dried under sterile air before storage in 4°C. Mice were anesthetized with 2% chloralhydrate and an intrastromal pocket was surgically created in the cornea. A slow release pellet was inserted into the intrastromal pocket (VEGF, control, 1 μg peptides, 5 μg peptides; n=8 mice per group, 32 mice total). Ofloxacin ointment was applied to the operated eye in order to release the irritation and prevent infection. On post-operative day 7, mice were anesthetized, and the corneas were microscopically examined using an Olympus SZX2-ILLT stereoscope. Corneal neovascularization was evaluated by measuring the maximal vessel length from limbal vasculature toward the pellet (R1; in mm) and the contiguous circumferential zone of neovascular clock hours (R2). The neovascular area was calculated by the formula: Area (mm2) = 0.5×3.14×R1×R2×0.4 (mm).
Flow cytometry assay
HUVECs were seeded in 6-well plates (6×104 cells/well). After overnight starvation, cells were incubated with VEGF (100 ng/ml) in ECM culture medium (Gibco, USA). For treatment with peptides, cells were pre-incubated with H-RN (150 μM or 1.5 mM) or scrambled peptide for 30 min prior to addition of VEGF (100 ng/ml). Cells were incubated for 24 h and apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V-FITC / propidium iodide (PI) staining according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen, USA). Briefly, cells were rinsed with ice-cold PBS and resuspended at a final concentration of 2-5×105/ml in 250 μl binding buffer. Five microliters of annexin V-FITC stock solution was added to the cells and rinsed for 3 minutes at 4°C. Then 10μl PI (20μg/ml) was added and incubated in the dark at room temperature for 10 min. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur, BD Biosciences, Franklin Lanes, NJ, USA) equipped with Cell Quest software. For each sample, approximately 1×104 cells were analyzed .
Cell cycle analysis
HUVECs were seeded on 6-well plates and incubated with or without 100ng/ml VEGF 24 h after starvation overnight. In peptides treated group, cells were incubated with 150 μM or 1.5mM H-RN for 24 h. HUVECs were harvested, washed with PBS and fixed with 70% ethanol for 30 min at 4°C. Cells were washed once with PBS, and incubated in PBS containing 50 μg/ml PI, 200 μg/ml RNase A and 0.1% Triton for 30 min at 37°C in dark. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur, BD Biosciences, Franklin Lanes, NJ, USA), and the data analysis was performed using Cell Quest software [30, 31].
For experiments with four treatment groups and various treatment concentrations, univariate analysis of variance was used. For comparison of the differences between groups, a posthoc LSD test was used. All values are expressed as the mean ± SD. An alpha level of <0.05 was used as the criterion of significance.
- HGF K1:
Hepatocyte growth factor kringle 1 domain
Vascular endothelial growth factor
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells
Endothelial cell medium
Fetal bovine serum
High-performance liquid chromatography
Phosphate Buffer Solution
The authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Qing GU from Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University. This study was supported by National Science and Technology Major Projects of the Twelfth Five-year Plan (No. 2011ZX09302-007-02), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81273424), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81170862) and The Key Program from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30930097).
- Biswas PS, Rouse BT: Early events in HSV keratitis–setting the stage for a blinding disease. Microbes Infect. 2005, 7: 799-810. 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.03.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bock F, Konig Y, Dietrich T, Zimmermann P, Baier M, Cursiefen C: Inhibition of angiogenesis in the anterior chamber of the eye. Ophthalmologe. 2007, 104: 336-344. 10.1007/s00347-007-1512-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scorcia V, Busin M: Survival of mushroom keratoplasty performed in corneas with postinfectious vascularized scars. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012, 153: 44-50. 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.05.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li N, Wang X, Wan P, Huang M, Wu Z, Liang X, Liu Y, Ge J, Huang J, Wang Z: Tectonic lamellar keratoplasty with acellular corneal stroma in high-risk corneal transplantation. Mol Vis. 2011, 17: 1909-1917.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Han ES, Wee WR, Lee JH, Kim MK: Long-term outcome and prognostic factor analysis for keratolimbal allografts. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011, 249: 1697-1704. 10.1007/s00417-011-1760-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sennlaub F, Courtois Y, Goureau O: Nitric oxide synthase-II is expressed in severe corneal alkali burns and inhibits neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999, 40: 2773-2779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee P, Wang CC, Adamis AP: Ocular neovascularization: an epidemiologic review. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998, 43: 245-269. 10.1016/S0039-6257(98)00035-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Regenfuss B, Bock F, Parthasarathy A, Cursiefen C: Corneal (lymph)angiogenesis–from bedside to bench and back: a tribute to Judah Folkman. Lymphat Res Biol. 2008, 6: 191-201. 10.1089/lrb.2008.6348.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dastjerdi MH, Al-Arfaj KM, Nallasamy N, Hamrah P, Jurkunas UV, Pineda R, Pavan-Langston D, Dana R: Topical bevacizumab in the treatment of corneal neovascularization: results of a prospective, open-label, noncomparative study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009, 127: 381-389. 10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.18.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holzer MP, Solomon KD, Vroman DT, Sandoval HP, Margaron P, Kasper TJ, Crosson CE: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in a rabbit model of corneal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003, 44: 2954-2958. 10.1167/iovs.02-0572.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Wijngaarden P, Coster DJ, Williams KA: Inhibitors of ocular neovascularization: promises and potential problems. JAMA. 2005, 293: 1509-1513. 10.1001/jama.293.12.1509.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gragoudas ES, Adamis AP, Cunningham ET, Feinsod M, Guyer DR: Pegaptanib for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. VEGF Inhibition Study in Ocular Neovascularization Clinical Trial Group. N Engl J Med. 2004, 351: 2805-2816. 10.1056/NEJMoa042760.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Giantonio BJ, Levy DE, O’Dwyer PJ, Meropol NJ, Catalano PJ, Benson AB: A phase II study of high-dose bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, as initial therapy for advanced colorectal cancer: results from the eastern cooperative oncology group study E2200. Ann Oncol. 2006, 17: 1399-1403. 10.1093/annonc/mdl161.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hurwitz H, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny W, Cartwright T, Hainsworth J, Heim W, Berlin J, Baron A, Griffing S, Holmgren E, Ferrara N, Fyfe G, Rogers B, Ross R, Kabbinavar F: Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin formetastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004, 350: 2335-2342. 10.1056/NEJMoa032691.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sulochana KN, Ge R: Developing antiangiogenic peptide drugs for angiogenesis-related diseases. Curr Pharm Des. 2007, 13: 2074-2086. 10.2174/138161207781039715.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu Y, Zhao H, Zheng Y, Gu Q, Ma J, Xu X: A novel antiangiogenic peptide derived from hepatocyte growth factor inhibits neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. Mol Vis. 2010, 16: 1982-1995.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou SY, Xie ZL, Xiao O, Yang XR, Heng BC, Sato Y: Inhibition of mouse alkali burn induced-corneal neovascularization by recombinant adenovirus encoding human vasohibin-1. Mol Vis. 2010, 16: 1389-1398.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mutan VR, Auerbach R: Angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. Science. 1979, 205: 1418-1419. 10.1126/science.472761.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kenyon BM, Voest EE, Chen CC, Flynn E, Folkman J, D'Amato RJ: A model of angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996, 37: 1625-1632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li T, Hu A, Li S, Luo Y, Huang J, Yu H, Ma W, Pan J, Zhong Q, Yang J, Wu J, Tang S: KH906, a recombinant human VEGF receptor fusion protein, is a new effective topical treatment forcorneal neovascularization. Mol Vis. 2011, 17: 797-803.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prager GW, Mihaly J, Brunner PM, Koshelnick Y, Hoyer-Hansen G, Binder BR: Urokinase mediates endothelial cell survival via induction of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Blood. 2009, 113: 1383-1390. 10.1182/blood-2008-06-164210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gerber HP, Dixit V, Ferrara N: Vascular endothelial growth factor induces expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and A1 in vascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 13313-13316. 10.1074/jbc.273.21.13313.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Obaya AJ, Sedivy JM: Regulation of cyclin-Cdk activity in mammalian cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002, 59: 126-142. 10.1007/s00018-002-8410-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mani S, Wang C, Wu K, Francis R, Pestell R: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: novel anticancer agents. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000, 9: 1849-1870. 10.1517/13543718.104.22.1689.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mu H, Ohashi R, Yan S, Chai H, Yang H, Lin P, Yao Q, Chen C: Adipokine resistin promotes in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2006, 70: 146-157. 10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.01.015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yu WZ, Zou H, Li XX, Yan Z, Dong JQ: Effects of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor in a mouse model of retinal neovascularization. Ophthalmic Res. 2008, 40: 19-25. 10.1159/000111154.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sulochana KN, Fan H, Jois S, Subramanian V, Sun F, Kini RM, Ge R: Peptides derived from human decorin leucine-rich repeat 5 inhibit angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 27935-27948. 10.1074/jbc.M414320200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leahy KM, Ornberg RL, Wang Y, Zweifel BS, Koki AT, Masferrer JL: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition by celecoxib reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in angiogenic endothelial cells in vivo. Cancer Res. 2002, 62: 625-631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Chen X, Xiao W, Ma W, Li T, Huang J, Liu X, Liang X, Tang S, Luo Y: Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide SS31 attenuates high glucose-induced injury on human retinal endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011, 404: 349-356. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.11.122.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen JY, Hwang CC, Chen WY, Lee JC, Fu TF, Fang K, Chu YC, Huang YL, Lin JC, Tsai WH, Chang HW, Chen BH, Chiu CC: Additive effects of C(2)-ceramide on paclitaxel-induced premature senescence of human lung cancer cells. Life Sci. 2010, 87: 350-357. 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.06.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Przygodzka P, Boncela J, Cierniewski CS: Matrin 3 as a key regulator of endothelial cell survival. Exp Cell Res. 2011, 317: 802-811. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.12.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.