PIST regulates the intracellular trafficking and plasma membrane expression of Cadherin 23
© Xu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 12 March 2010
Accepted: 19 October 2010
Published: 19 October 2010
The atypical cadherin protein cadherin 23 (CDH23) is crucial for proper function of retinal photoreceptors and inner ear hair cells. As we obtain more and more information about the specific roles of cadherin 23 in photoreceptors and hair cells, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the transport of this protein to the plasma membrane are largely unknown.
PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, interacted with cadherin 23 via the PDZ domain of PIST and the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI) of cadherin 23. By binding to cadherin 23, PIST retained cadherin 23 in the trans-Golgi network of cultured cells. The retention was released when either of the two known cadherin 23-binding proteins MAGI-1 and harmonin was co-expressed. Similar to MAGI-1 and harmonin, PIST was detected in mouse inner ear sensory hair cells.
PIST binds cadherin 23 via its PDZ domain and retains cadherin 23 in trans-Golgi network. MAGI-1 and harmonin can compete with PIST for binding cadherin 23 and release cadherin 23 from PIST's retention. Our finding suggests that PIST, MAGI-1 and harmonin collaborate in intracellular trafficking of cadherin 23 and regulate the plasma membrane expression of cadherin 23.
Cadherins are calcium-dependent transmembrane proteins. They play important roles in cell adhesion, which is crucial for establishing and maintaining tissue architecture and function . Around 80 cadherin proteins have been identified, which can be divided into different subgroups, including classic cadherins, desmogleins, desmocollins, protocadherins, CNRs, Fats, seven-pass transmembrane cadherins, and Ret tyrosine kinase . All cadherins have extracellular cadherin (EC) repeats, the extracellular Ca2+-binding domains that mediate cell-cell adhesion, but their cytoplasmic domains are diverse. Classic cadherins (E- and N-cadherins) have a β-catenin-binding motif in their cytoplasmic domain, which is important for the cell adhesion function .
The atypical cadherin protein cadherin 23 (CDH23) is closely related to the Fat subgroup, which is characterized by a large number of EC repeats (27 for cadherin 23 and Dachsous, 34 for Fat), a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic domain. Although it bears no homology with classical cadherins except for the EC repeats, cadherin 23 can mediate cell-cell adhesion when over-expressed in L cells . The cytoplasmic domain of cadherin 23 lacks the β-catenin-binding motif, suggesting that it may not be able to interact with β-catenin directly. However, recently cadherin 23 was shown to bind to the PDZ4 domain of a scaffolding protein, MAGI-1 , which in turn can bind to β-catenin via its PDZ5 domain , suggesting that MAGI-1 may act as a bridge between cadherin 23 and β-catenin.
The CDH23 gene gives rise to different transcripts through two mechanisms. The first mechanism utilizes different promoters, giving rise to proteins with different numbers of EC repeats . The second type involves the alternative splicing of exon 68, which encodes part of the cytoplasmic domain of the cadherin 23(+68) isoform that is preferentially expressed in the inner ear [3, 4]. It has been shown that the longest cadherin 23 variant with 27 EC repeats is a part of the tip-links in hair cell stereocilia [3, 7], which are the mechanical links that are essential for gating of the mechanoelectrical transduction channels. Mutations of CDH23 gene have been identified to associate with blindness and hearing loss [8, 9].
Several cadherin 23-binding proteins have been reported, including harmonin [10, 11], myosin 1c , and protocadherin 15 , all of which have been shown to be involved in hearing transduction and/or retinal function. As we learn more and more about the function of cadherin 23, our knowledge about its genesis is limited. Understanding how cadherin 23 is being shuttled to the apical hair cells membrane for example, and ultimately, how tip links are being assembled is crucial for shedding light on the molecular mechanisms of hair cell mechanosensation. Recently, EHD4, a EH domain-containing protein involved in endocytic recycling was identified as a novel cadherin 23-binding partner, and was suggested to play a role in regulating the membrane localization of cadherin 23 . Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanism responsible for the transport of cadherin 23 to the plasma membrane remains unclear.
We have conducted yeast two-hybrid screens of a cochlear cDNA library using the cadherin 23(+68) intracellular domain as a bait, and identified MAGI-1, a MAGUK protein containing multiple PDZ domains, as a novel cadherin 23-interaction partner . Here we report another PDZ domain-containing protein identified from the screen, PIST (also known as GOPC, or CAL). PIST was first reported as a putative binding protein of the Rho protein TC10, which is reflected in its name PIST: P DZ domain protein i nteracting s pecifically with T C10 . As a Golgi-associated protein, PIST has been shown to interact with some transmembrane proteins and regulate the intracellular sorting and plasma membrane expression of these proteins [14–19].
Here we showed that PIST and cadherin 23 interact via the PDZ domain of PIST and the cytoplasmic PDZ-binding interface (PBI) of cadherin 23, respectively. When co-expressed in cultured cells, PIST retained cadherin 23 in trans-golgi networks (TGN). MAGI-1 and harmonin, two known cadherin 23-binding proteins that are expressed in hair cells were able to compete with PIST and to release cadherin 23 from its retention. Immunostaining showed that PIST is expressed in inner ear hair cells. Our results suggest that PIST, MAGI-1 and harmonin regulate the intracellular sorting of cadherin 23, thereby affecting the membrane localization of cadherin 23.
Yeast Two-hybrid Screen
The yeast two-hybrid screen was performed as described before . Briefly, a chicken basilar papilla cDNA library  was screened using the carboxyl-terminal 265 amino acids (aa) of chicken cadherin 23(+68) as a bait. 5 × 106 total transformants were selectively screened using HIS3 (at the presence of 2.5 mM of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) as the primary reporter gene, then two more reporter genes ADE2 and lacZ were used to verify the positive colonies. The prey vectors in triple-positive yeast colonies were recovered and cDNA inserts were sequenced.
Mouse CDH23 cDNA is a gift from K. Noben-Trauth (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Rockville, MD), which consists of CDH23 cDNA encoding the first three extracellular cadherin (EC) repeats (1-348 aa) fused to cDNA encoding the protein's carboxyl-terminus (2975-3354aa in cadherin 23(+68), 2975-3319aa in cadherin 23(-68)) including the transmembrane domain. For protein manipulation, we added His and c-Myc tags between the signal peptide and the first EC repeat. The cDNA encoding cadherin 23 lacking the last 4 aa (ITEL) at the carboxyl-terminus was PCR amplified and cloned into pcDNA3.1(+) to generate expression vectors for Myc-cadherin 23 (-ITEL). Human HA-PIST cDNA is a gift from Dr. W. B. Guggino (Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD). PIST cDNA was PCR amplified and cloned into pEGFP-C2 to express full length PIST, PIST CC2-plus domain (146-274aa), and PIST PDZ domain (276-366aa) as EGFP fusion proteins. Mouse MAGI-1c cDNA is a gift from K. M. Patrie (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI), and was PCR-amplified and cloned into pEGFP-C2 for the expression of EGFP-MAGI-1c protein. Mouse harmonin cDNA was PCR-amplified from mouse organ of Corti cDNA and cloned into pEGFP-C2 for the expression of EGFP-harmonin protein.
HEK293 cells were transfected with the expression vectors using GeneJammer transfection reagent (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). Transfected cells were washed with PBS 24-48 hours after transfection and lysed in ice-cold lysis buffer consisting of 150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris at pH 7.5, 1% (vol/vol) Triton X-100, 1 mM PMSF, and 1 × protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO). For immunoprecipitation, we used immobilized monoclonal anti-c-Myc agarose beads (Sigma-Aldrich) and performed the experiments according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Following 2 hours of incubation at 4°C, immunoprecipitated proteins were washed five times with washing buffer (a modified lysis buffer containing 500 mM NaCl instead of 150 mM), separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, then transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. The proteins were probed with corresponding antibodies and detected with an Odyssey Infrared Imaging System (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE).
All steps were performed at room temperature unless otherwise indicated. Transfected cells (HEK293, CHO, or COS-7) growing on Gelatin-coated glass cover slips were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 15 minutes, then permeabilized and blocked with PBT1 (0.1% Triton X-100, 1% BSA, 5% heat-inactivated goat serum in PBS, pH 7.3) for 30 minutes, followed by incubation with mouse anti-myc antibody 9E10 (The Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Iowa City, IA) and/or rabbit anti-PIST antibody (Affinity purified, a gift from Dr. K. Nagata (Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Japan)), 1:500 diluted in PBT1, over night at 4°C. In other experiments, polyclonal rabbit antibody against cadherin 23 (a gift from Dr. Ulrich Muller (Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA)) and monoclonal mouse antibody against golgin-97 (A-21270, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), 1:200 diluted in PBT1, were used to label cadherin 23 and trans-golgi network marker golgin-97. After washing twice with PBT1 for 10 minutes and twice with PBT2 (0.1% Triton X-100, 0.1% BSA in PBS) for 5 minutes, cells were incubated with 7.5 μg/ml fluorescence-conjugated secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch Inc., West Grove, PA) in PBT2 for 1 hour, followed by two 5 minutes PBT2 washes and two 5 minutes PBS washes. For nuclei staining, cells were then incubated with TOTO-3 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), 1:2,000 diluted in PBS for 1 hour, followed by three 10 minutes PBS washes, then mounted in Glycerol/PBS (1:1). Immunostaining was imaged with a confocal microscope (LSM Pascal, Zeiss, Germany).
Tissue section staining
All animal procedures followed guidelines set forth by the National Institutes of Health. The cochleae were dissected from P5 and adult (4-week old) C57 mice, immediately fixed in 4% PFA for 3 hours, then immersed in 30% sucrose solution overnight and embedded in O.C.T. compound (Tissue-Tek, Sakura Finetek, Japan). Blocks were then frozen at -20°C and sectioned at 14 μm thickness onto slide glasses with Cryostat (Leica CM3050S, Germany). Staining was performed as described above. Briefly, sectioned tissues were incubated with rabbit anti-PIST antibody (1:100) and guinea pig anti-myosin VIIa antibody (1:200) , then 7.5 μg/ml fluorescence-conjugated secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch Inc.). After the final wash with PBS, tissues were stained with TRITC-conjugated phalloidin (Sigma-Aldrich) to visualize F-actin in the hair bundles of hair cells and DAPI (Molecular Probes) to visualize nuclei. The slides were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and digital image acquisition (Zeiss Axioimager and AxioCam).
PIST's interaction with cadherin 23 is PDZ mediated
The last 4 amino acids (ITEL) at cadherin 23's carboxyl-terminus constitute a class-I PDZ domain binding interface (PBI), which is important for the interaction of cadherin 23 with two other PDZ domain containing proteins, harmonin and MAGI-1 [4, 11]. We then tested whether these 4 amino acids are also important for the association of cadherin 23 with PIST. We found that cadherin 23 lacking the last 4 amino acids (cadherin 23(-ITEL)) displayed decreased binding ability to PIST when compared to intact cadherin 23 (Figure 1C). Although the removal of binding could be the consequence of misfolding of the truncated protein, our data as well as other published results suggested that the principal interaction between the two proteins utilizes the PDZ binding interface.
PIST retains cadherin 23 in the trans-Golgi network
MAGI-1 and harmonin compete with PIST, and release cadherin 23 from trans-Golgi network retention
The interaction between harmonin and cadherin 23 is more complex, involving multiple binding sites. The PDZ2 domain of harmonin binds weakly to cadherin 23's carboxyl-terminus. A second interaction happens between the region immediately upstream of harmonin's PDZ1 domain and an internal peptide of cadherin 23's intracellular domain . The amino acids encoded by exon 68 are adjacent to this binding site in cadherin 23 and may affect the binding to harmonin, since it has been shown that harmonin binds to cadherin 23(-68) much more robustly than to cadherin 23(+68) [4, 11]. This preferential splice variant-dependent binding was functionally confirmed in our subcellular localization assays. When Myc-cadherin 23(-68) and HA-PIST were co-expressed in HEK293 cells in presence of EGFP-harmonin, Myc-cadherin 23(-68) co-localized with EGFP-harmonin, which was associated with filamentous structures in the cytoplasm as described before , but not in trans-golgi networks where HA-PIST localizes (Figure 6C). Conversely, when Myc-cadherin 23(+68) and HA-PIST were co-expressed in HEK293 cells in presence of EGFP-harmonin, Myc-cadherin 23(+68) displayed a mixed localization, partially colocalized with EGFP-harmonin in the cytoplasm, as well as partially colocalized with HA-PIST in the trans-golgi network, which is consistent with a weaker binding ability of cadherin 23(+68) to harmonin (Figure 6D).
PIST protein is expressed by all types of hair cells
Our findings support the hypothesis that the Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein PIST, in conjunction with two other PDZ domain-containing proteins MAGI-1 and harmonin, plays roles in trafficking cadherin 23 to different subcellular locations. It has been shown that PIST interacts with some membrane proteins, and regulates the intracellular trafficking and localization of these membrane proteins: over-expression of PIST leads to a dramatic decrease in the plasma membrane expression of CFTR , ClC-3 chloride channels , the β1 adrenergic receptor , and the somatostatin receptor subtype 5 . Here we show that over-expression of PIST retains cadherin 23 in the trans-golgi network and decreases the plasma membrane expression of cadherin 23, suggesting that it is able to regulate the intracellular localization and/or sorting of cadherin 23. This regulation requires the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI) of cadherin 23.
Interestingly, we found that besides the PDZ domain, the CC2 domain and its downstream amino acids (PIST CC2-plus) also interacts with cadherin 23 in an isoform-dependent way. Nevertheless, this binding site does not appear to mediate the principal interaction between these two proteins because interference of the PDZ/PBI-mediated interaction between PIST and cadherin 23 abolishes the interaction of these two proteins nearly completely.
We also found that the other two cadherin 23-binding, PDZ domain-containing proteins, MAGI-1 and harmonin, can compete with PIST in cellular assays, resulting in release of cadherin 23 from trans-golgi networks. Consistent with its equal binding strength to cadherin 23(+68) and cadherin 23(-68), MAGI-1 can release both cadherin 23 isoforms from PIST's retention. On the other hand, harmonin has a lower binding ability to cadherin 23(+68) when compared to cadherin 23(-68), hence although it releases cadherin 23(-68) efficiently, it only partially releases cadherin 23(+68) from PIST's retention.
We used HEK293 cells as a model to study the competitions among these PDZ domain-containing proteins for binding cadherin 23. In polarized cells such as hair cells, both MAGI-1 and harmonin have been shown to associate with the plasma membrane and hair cell stereocilia [4, 10, 24]. In our study, over-expressed MAGI-1 and harmonin are not targeted to the membrane; instead, they showed cytoplasmic localization and aggregation. This mislocalization is likely the result of overexpression in a cell line. In addition, other unknown factors that are potentially present in hair cells might contribute to the membrane localization of MAGI-1 and harmonin. Nevertheless, our data provide the first clues on posttranslational targeting of cadherin 23 through the trans-golgi network to other places inside the cell. We hypothesize that PIST in hair cells can transiently interact with cadherin 23 and retain cadherin 23 in the trans-golgi networks, and that this retention is released by either MAGI-1 or harmonin. We speculate that MAGI-1/cadherin 23 or harmonin/cadherin 23 are targeted together to the apical hair cell plasma membrane.
Cadherin 23 has a limited expression profile, only detected in some cell types. Cadherin 23(+68), which is suggested to be the hair cell tip-link component, is only reported in hair cells so far . In mouse inner ear, PIST expression was restricted to hair cells and supporting cells, both in the auditory and vestibular systems. This places all four proteins, cadherin 23, PIST, harmonin, and MAGI-1 into hair cells. It has been shown that in hair cells, cadherin 23 is detected on the stereocilia, and not detectable in the trans-golgi network, but it is very clear the native cadherin 23 needs to pass through the TGN (and very likely interacts with other proteins in the TGN) on its way to the apical hair cell plasma membrane. Our data suggests that PIST may play an important role in regulating the intracellular sorting/localization of cadherin 23. PIST, harmonin, and MAGI-1, the three cadherin 23-binding, PDZ domain-containing proteins, may work together, perhaps sequentially, to regulate cadherin 23's transport to the plasma membrane.
Our data suggests a possible regulatory mechanism responsible for the transport of cadherin 23 to the plasma membrane. We show that cadherin 23 interacts with PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, which retains cadherin 23 in the trans-golgi network, and reduces the membrane expression of cadherin 23. In this way PIST plays a negative role in targeting cadherin 23 to the plasma membrane. We also show that MAGI-1 and harmonin can compete with PIST for binding cadherin 23 and release cadherin 23 from PIST's retention. Taken together, PIST, MAGI-1 and harmonin may collaborate in intracellular trafficking of cadherin 23 and regulate the plasma membrane expression of cadherin 23.
List of abbreviations
PDZ binding interface
human embryonic kidney
phosphate buffered saline
coiled-coil domain 2
This work was supported (in part) by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants R01 DC4563 and P30 DC010363 (to S.H.) and Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University (IIFSDU) (to Z.X.). We thank Dr. K. Nagata (Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Japan) for the anti-PIST antibody; Dr. U. Muller (Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA) for the anti-cadherin 23 antibody; Dr. K. Noben-Trauth (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Rockville, MD) for the CDH23 cDNA; Dr. K.M. Patrie (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI) for the MAGI-1 cDNA; Dr. W.B. Guggino (Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD) for the PIST cDNA. We thank Dr. A.W. Peng and Y. Yu for critically reading this manuscript.
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